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Braunschweig, Germany

Dirksmeyer W.,Institute of Farm Economics
Acta Horticulturae

The two most recent horticultural censuses from 1994 and 2005 provide a descriptive analysis of the structural change in the horticultural production sector in Germany. Data on the number of farms, the production area and the labour input are available. Some 34,702 farms were engaged in horticultural production which utilized some 209,703 ha and employed 122,184 full time equivalents. Two thirds of these farms were specialized in horticultural production activities which used 78% of the production area. The fruit and vegetable sectors each have a significant influence on the development of the production structure in Germany. Of the total production area used by specialized farms, 29% are dedicated to fruit and 42% to vegetable production. However, the number of farms producing vegetables decreased by 42% between 1994 and 2005. On the other hand, the production area increased by more than one third to 97,218 ha. The development of specialized fruit producers was similar. In the same period, the number of farms producing fruit and specialized fruit producers decreased by about one third each to 16,594 farms and 7,345 farms respectively. A slight reduction in the production area for specialized fruit producing farms to 46,308 ha was observed, whereas the fruit production area increased by 12% to 82,144 ha. The result of these developments are larger but fewer farms. Comparing the labour input and production area reveals improvements in labour productivity in specialized fruit and vegetable production. Furthermore, horticultural production has become more professional today, due to the concentration of production activities in greater and more specialized farms. It is likely that these developments will continue in the future. Source

Deppermann A.,University of Hohenheim | Grethe H.,University of Hohenheim | Offermann F.,Institute of Farm Economics
European Review of Agricultural Economics

We measure impacts of liberalising European agriculture on farm income distribution in western Germany. Unlike previous studies, we do not treat market income and policy support as independent income sources. We jointly apply a partial equilibrium and a programming model and find that liberalisation increases inequality in relative terms though it decreases inequality in absolute terms. In particular, we analyse the relevance of taking into account policy-induced production and market responses in an ex-ante inequality analysis. We find that although their inclusion generally does not affect the direction of distributional effects, it may have considerable impact on their magnitude. © 2013 Oxford University Press and Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics . Source

Deppermann A.,University of Hohenheim | Deppermann A.,International Institute For Applied Systems Analysis | Offermann F.,Institute of Farm Economics | Puttkammer J.,University of Hohenheim | Grethe H.,University of Hohenheim
Renewable Energy

European Union (EU) policymakers have persistently supported first-generation biofuels despite the clearly emerging picture of small or even negative green house gas mitigation effects. This leads to the conclusion that support is driven by other objectives, for example income effects. Against this background, the main objective of this article is to analyse the income effects of abolishing biofuel policies, as well as to explore the link between these effects and lobbying decisions taken by farmers' associations representing different groups of German farmers. Income effects are estimated for different farm types and regions, and differences between farm net value added and family farm income are analysed. To understand the link between income effects and lobbying decisions, our quantitative results are compared with the biofuel policy positions of different farmers' associations. Our results suggest that, in the long run, average income effects are small, especially if the ownership of production factors is accounted for in the income calculation. Many farms show losses if biofuel support is abolished, but others even benefit from lower rental costs and experience positive income effects. Farmers' associations seem to be able to well assess the income effects of EU biofuel policy for different types of farms. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Offermann F.,Institute of Farm Economics | Deblitz C.,Institute of Farm Economics | Golla B.,Institute for Strategies and Technology Assessment | Gomann H.,Institute of Rural Studies | And 11 more authors.
Landbauforschung Volkenrode

This article presents selected results of the Thünen-Baseline as well as the assumptions upon which these results are based. The Thünen-Baseline is established using and combining several models of theThünen model network. It provides a reference scenario for the analysis of the impacts of alternative policies and developments. The projections are based on data and information available as of winter 2013/14. The baseline assumes a continuation of the current policy framework and the implementation of already decided policy changes. For the Thünen-Baseline 2013 to 2023, this implies the implementation of the EU-CAP reform decided in 2013 and its national implementation according to the decisions made at the German Ministers of Agriculture conference. Overall, the Thünen-Baseline 2013 to 2023 draws a picture of a competitive agricultural sector in Germany, which adapts well to the changes of the latest policy reform and seizes the opportunities for expanding production, especially in the dairy sector. On the other hand, the projections also highlight that - under the assumptions made and with unchanged policy conditions - the problems that may accompany intensive livestock production will not simply dissolve. In contrast, in view of the projected high profitability of intensive pig and poultry production the related challenges could increase. Source

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