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Sheldon J.,Institute of Experimental Virology | Gallego I.,CIBER ISCIII | Gregori J.,Internal Medicine Hospital Universitari Vall dHebron | Gregori J.,Roche Holding AG | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Virology

Passage of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human hepatoma cells resulted in populations that displayed partial resistance to alpha interferon (IFN-α), telaprevir, daclatasvir, cyclosporine, and ribavirin, despite no prior exposure to these drugs. Mutant spectrum analyses and kinetics of virus production in the absence and presence of drugs indicate that resistance is not due to the presence of drug resistance mutations in the mutant spectrum of the initial or passaged populations but to increased replicative fitness acquired during passage. Fitness increases did not alter host factors that lead to shutoff of general host cell protein synthesis and preferential translation of HCV RNA. The results imply that viral replicative fitness is a mechanism of multidrug resistance in HCV. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Vieyres G.,Institute of Experimental Virology | Pietschmann T.,Institute of Experimental Virology

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive-strand enveloped RNA virus and belongs to the Flaviviridae family. The heavy health burden associated with the virus infection in humans and the intriguing peculiarities of the interaction between the HCV replication cycle and the hepatocyte host cell have stimulated a flourishing research field. The present review aims at recapitulating the different viral and cellular systems modelling HCV entry and replication, and in particular at gathering the tools available to dissect the HCV entry pathway. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Nandakumar R.,Helmholtz Center for Infection Research | Finsterbusch K.,Helmholtz Center for Infection Research | Lipps C.,Helmholtz Center for Infection Research | Neumann B.,Helmholtz Center for Infection Research | And 9 more authors.

Background & Aims Current treatment strategies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection include pegylated interferon (IFN)-alfa and ribavirin. Approximately 50% of patients control HCV infection after treatment, but the broad range of patients' outcomes and responses to treatment, among all genotypes, indicates a role for host factors. Although the IFN system is important in limiting HCV replication, the virus has evolved mechanisms to circumvent the IFN response. However, direct, IFN-independent antiviral processes also might help control HCV replication. We examined the role of IFN-independent responses against HCV replication. Methods We analyzed replication of the subgenomic JFH1 replicon in embryonic fibroblasts and primary hepatocytes from mice with disruptions in genes encoding factors in the IFN-dependent and alternative antiviral pathways (signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 [STAT1], protein kinase R, interferon regulatory factors (IRF) IRF-1, IRF-3, IRF-5, IRF-7, mitochondrial antiviral signaling molecule [MAVS], and IFN receptor [IFNAR]). We also assessed the effects of expression of these factors by mouse primary hepatocytes on HCV replication. Results In addition to IRF-3- and IFN-mediated antiviral responses, IFN-independent, but IRF-1- and IRF-5-dependent mechanisms, restrict HCV replication in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. In primary hepatocytes these IFN-independent require MAVS and IRF-1. Conclusions HCV replication is limited by interferon-mediated pathways as well pathways that are independent of type I IFNs. IRF1 and IRF5 control IFN-independent signaling events that lead to antiviral responses. We observed antiviral roles of IRF1 and IRF5 that were IFN-independent and cell-type specific. These mechanisms are important in controlling viruses that interfere with the IFN signaling because cells retain the ability to induce functional but local antiviral states through expression of interferon-stimulated genes. © 2013 by the AGA Institute. Source

Hamming O.J.,University of Aarhus | Terczynska-Dyla E.,University of Aarhus | Vieyres G.,Institute of Experimental Virology | Dijkman R.,Institute of Immunobiology | And 7 more authors.
EMBO Journal

The IFNL4 gene is a recently discovered type III interferon, which in a significant fraction of the human population harbours a frameshift mutation abolishing the IFNλ4 ORF. The expression of IFNλ4 is correlated with both poor spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and poor response to treatment with type I interferon. Here, we show that the IFNL4 gene encodes an active type III interferon, named IFNλ4, which signals through the IFNλR1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains. Recombinant IFNλ4 is antiviral against both HCV and coronaviruses at levels comparable to IFNλ3. However, the secretion of IFNλ4 is impaired compared to that of IFNλ3, and this impairment is not due to a weak signal peptide, which was previously believed. We found that IFNλ4 gets N-linked glycosylated and that this glycosylation is required for secretion. Nevertheless, this glycosylation is not required for activity. Together, these findings result in the paradox that IFNλ4 is strongly antiviral but a disadvantage during HCV infection. © 2013 European Molecular Biology Organization. Source

Anggakusuma,Institute of Experimental Virology | Frentzen A.,Institute of Experimental Virology | Gurlevik E.,Hepatology and Endocrinology | Yuan Q.,Hepatology and Endocrinology | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Virology

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) efficiently infects only humans and chimpanzees. Although the detailed mechanisms responsible for this narrow species tropism remain elusive, recent evidence has shown that murine innate immune responses efficiently suppress HCV replication. Therefore, poor adaptation of HCV to evade and/or counteract innate immune responses may prevent HCV replication in mice. The HCV NS3-4A protease cleaves human MAVS, a key cellular adaptor protein required for RIG-I-like receptor (RLR)-dependent innate immune signaling. However, it is unclear if HCV interferes with mouse MAVS function equally well. Moreover, MAVS-dependent signaling events that restrict HCV replication in mouse cells were incompletely defined. Thus, we quantified the ability of HCV NS3-4A to counteract mouse and human MAVS. HCV NS3-4A similarly diminished both human and mouse MAVS-dependent signaling in human and mouse cells. Moreover, replicon-encoded protease cleaved a similar fraction of both MAVS variants. Finally, FLAG-tagged MAVS proteins repressed HCV replication to similar degrees. Depending on MAVS expression, HCV replication in mouse liver cells triggered not only type I but also type III IFNs, which cooperatively repressed HCV replication. Mouse liver cells lacking both type I and III IFN receptors were refractory to MAVS-dependent antiviral effects, indicating that the HCV-induced MAVS-dependent antiviral state depends on both type I and III IFN receptor signaling. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. Source

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