Lewkowicz A.,Institute of Experimental Physics of Gdansk |
Synak A.,Institute of Experimental Physics of Gdansk |
Grobelna B.,University of Gdansk |
Bojarski P.,Institute of Experimental Physics of Gdansk |
And 4 more authors.
Titanium dioxide is a well-known material in nanotechnology, while it provides new opportunities due to its interesting properties, for example, as a semiconductor with a quite significant forbidden band gap energy of 3.2 eV. In this study, thin films of titanium dioxide (TiO2) were synthesized in amorphous and crystallographic systems using the sol-gel process. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were applied to obtain structural characteristics of the prepared films. We estimated that TiO2 thin films crystallize in anatase phase between temperatures 380 °C and 700 °C, and into anatase-rutile phase at 650 °C, while rutile phase exists alone above 800 °C. The changes in porosity of materials in relation to temperature were calculated as well. The refractive index of titanium dioxide thin films from ellipsometric measurements is also provided. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source