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Debette S.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Debette S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Compter A.,University Utrecht | Labeyrie M.-A.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | And 46 more authors.
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2015

Spontaneous intracranial artery dissection is an uncommon and probably underdiagnosed cause of stroke that is defined by the occurrence of a haematoma in the wall of an intracranial artery. Patients can present with headache, ischaemic stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage, or symptoms associated with mass effect, mostly on the brainstem. Although intracranial artery dissection is less common than cervical artery dissection in adults of European ethnic origin, intracranial artery dissection is reportedly more common in children and in Asian populations. Risk factors and mechanisms are poorly understood, and diagnosis is challenging because characteristic imaging features can be difficult to detect in view of the small size of intracranial arteries. Therefore, multimodal follow-up imaging is often needed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment of intracranial artery dissections is empirical in the absence of data from randomised controlled trials. Most patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage undergo surgical or endovascular treatment to prevent rebleeding, whereas patients with intracranial artery dissection and cerebral ischaemia are treated with antithrombotics. Prognosis seems worse in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage than in those without. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Maggi L.,Fondazione IRCCS Instituto Neurologico Carlo Besta | D'Amico A.,IRCCS Bambino Gesu Childrens Hospital | Pini A.,IRCCS Institute of Neurological science | Sivo S.,Catholic University | And 28 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2014

Objectives: Our aim was to conduct a comparative study in a large cohort of myopathic patients carrying LMNA gene mutations to evaluate clinical and molecular features associated with different phenotypes. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 78 myopathic patients with LMNA mutation and 30 familial cases with LMNA mutation without muscle involvement. We analyzed features characterizing the various forms of LMNA-related myopathy through correlation statistics. Results: Of the 78 patients, 37 (47%) had limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1B (LGMD1B), 18 (23%) congenital muscular dystrophy (MDCL), 17 (22%) autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy 2 (EDMD2), and 6 (8%) an atypical myopathy. The myopathic phenotypes shared a similar cardiac impairment. Cardioverter defibrillator or pacemaker was implanted in 41 (53%) myopathic patients compared to 7 (23%) familial cases without muscle involvement (p = 0.005). Heart transplantation was performed in 8 (10.3%) myopathic patients and in none of the familial cases. Ten (12.8%) myopathic patients died; there were no deaths among the familial cases (p = 0.032). Missense mutations were found in 14 patients (82%) with EDMD2 and 14 patients (78%) with MDCL compared to 17 patients (45%) with LGMD1B and 4 (67%) atypical patients. Frameshift mutations were detected in 17 (45%) LGMD1B compared to 3 (18%) EDMD2, 1 (6%) MDCL, and 2 (33%) with atypical myopathy (p = 0.021). Furthermore, frameshift mutations were found in 30 of 73 patients (41%) with heart involvement compared to 4 of 35 (11%) without heart involvement (p = 0.004). Conclusions: Our data provided new insights in LMNA-related myopathies, whose natural history appears to be dominated by cardiac involvement and related complications. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.


Cambiaghi M.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Cambiaghi M.,Institute of Experimental Neurology INSPE | Cursi M.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Cursi M.,Institute of Experimental Neurology INSPE | And 10 more authors.
Epilepsy Research | Year: 2013

Deletion of one or more synapsin genes in mice results in a spontaneous epilepsy. In these animals, seizures can be evoked by opening or moving the cage. Aim of the present study was to characterize the evolution of the epileptic phenotype by neurophysiological examination and behavioral observation in synapsin triple knock-out (Syn-TKO) mice. Syn-TKO mice were studied from 20 postnatal days (PND) up to 6. months of age by video-EEG recording and behavioral observation. Background EEG spectral analysis was performed and data were compared to WT animals. Syn-TKO revealed rare spontaneous seizures and increased susceptibility to evoked seizures in mice from 60 to 100 PND. Spontaneous and evoked seizures presented similar duration and morphology. At times, seizures were followed by a post-ictal phase characterized by a 4. Hz rhythmic activity and immobility of the animal. Spectral analysis of background EEG evidenced a slowing of the theta-alpha peak in Syn-TKO mice compared to WT mice within the period from PND 40 to 100. These data indicate that Syn-TKO mice do not exhibit a linear progression of the epileptic phenotype, with the period corresponding to a higher susceptibility to evoked seizures characterized by background EEG slowing. This aspect might be connected to brain dysfunction often associated to epilepsy in the interictal period. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Laterza C.,Institute of Experimental Neurology INSpe | Merlini A.,Institute of Experimental Neurology INSpe | Merlini A.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | De Feo D.,Institute of Experimental Neurology INSpe | And 13 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2013

The possibility of generating neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has opened a new avenue of research that might nurture bench-to-bedside translation of cell transplantation protocols in central nervous system myelin disorders. Here we show that mouse iPSC-derived NPCs (miPSC-NPCs) - when intrathecally transplanted after disease onset - ameliorate clinical and pathological features of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Transplanted miPSC-NPCs exert the neuroprotective effect not through cell replacement, but through the secretion of leukaemia inhibitory factor that promotes survival, differentiation and the remyelination capacity of both endogenous oligodendrocyte precursors and mature oligodendrocytes. The early preservation of tissue integrity limits blood-brain barrier damage and central nervous system infiltration of blood-borne encephalitogenic leukocytes, ultimately responsible for demyelination and axonal damage. While proposing a novel mechanism of action, our results further expand the therapeutic potential of NPCs derived from iPSCs in myelin disorders. © 2009-2012 IEEE.


Esposito M.,Institute of Experimental Neurology INSPE | Ruffini F.,Institute of Experimental Neurology INSPE | Bellone M.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Gagliani N.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Neuroimmunology | Year: 2010

Rapamycin is an oral immunosuppressant drug previously reported to efficiently induce naturally occurring CD4 +CD25 +FoxP3 + regulatory T ( nT reg) cells re-establishing long-term immune self-tolerance in autoimmune diseases. We investigated the effect of rapamycin administration to SJL/j mice affected by PLP 139-151-induced relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (RR-EAE). We found that oral or intraperitoneal treatment at the peak of disease or at the end of the first clinical attack, dramatically ameliorated the clinical course of RR-EAE. Treatment suspension resulted in early reappearance of disease. Clinical response was associated with reduced central nervous system demyelination and axonal loss. Rapamycin induced suppression of IFN-γ, and IL-17 release from antigen-specific T cells in peripheral lymphoid organs. While CD4 +FoxP3 + cells were unaffected, we observed disappearance of CD4 +CD45RB high effector T (T eff) cells and selective expansion of T reg cells bearing the CD4 +CD45RB lowFoxP3 +CD25 +CD10 3 + extended phenotype. Finally, the dual action of rapamycin on both T eff and T reg cells resulted in modulation of their ratio that closely paralleled disease course. Our data show that rapamycin inhibits RR-EAE, provide evidence for the immunological mechanisms, and indicate this compound as a potential candidate for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Pluchino S.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Pluchino S.,University of Cambridge | Cusimano M.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Bacigaluppi M.,Institute of Experimental Neurology INSPE | Martino G.,Institute of Experimental Neurology INSPE
Archives Italiennes de Biologie | Year: 2010

Compelling evidence exists that somatic neural stem/precursor cell (NPC)-based therapies protect the central nervous system (CNS) from chronic inflammation-driven degeneration, such as that occurring in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), multiple sclerosis (MS), cerebral ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke and spinal cord injury (SCI). However, while it was first assumed that NPC transplants may act through direct replacement of lost/damaged cells, it has now become clear that they are able to protect the damaged nervous system through a number of 'bystander' mechanisms other than the expected cell replacement. In immune-mediated experimental demyelination - both in rodents and non-human primates - others and we have shown that transplanted NPC possess a constitutive and inducible ability to mediate efficient 'bystander' myelin repair and axonal rescue. This novel mechanism(s), which may improve the success of transplantation procedures, is likely to be exerted by undifferentiated NPCs whose functional characteristics are regulated by both CNS-resident and blood-borne inflammatory cells releasing in situ major stem cell regulators. Here, we discuss some of these alternative 'bystander' mechanisms, while pointing at the formation of the atypical ectopic perivascular niches, as the most challenging example of reciprocal biologically sound cross talk between the inflamed microenvironment(s) and transplanted therapeutic NPCs.


Cerovic M.,University of Cardiff | Cerovic M.,Institute of Experimental Neurology INSPE | Bagetta V.,Fondazione Santa Lucia | Pendolino V.,Fondazione Santa Lucia | And 12 more authors.
Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2015

Background Bidirectional long-term plasticity at the corticostriatal synapse has been proposed as a central cellular mechanism governing dopamine-mediated behavioral adaptations in the basal ganglia system. Balanced activity of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the direct and the indirect pathways is essential for normal striatal function. This balance is disrupted in Parkinson's disease and in l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia (LID), a common motor complication of current pharmacotherapy of Parkinson's disease.Methods Electrophysiological recordings were performed in mouse cortico-striatal slice preparation. Synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and depotentiation, was investigated. Specific pharmacological inhibitors or genetic manipulations were used to modulate the Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Ras-ERK) pathway, a signal transduction cascade implicated in behavioral plasticity, and synaptic activity in different subpopulations of striatal neurons was measured.Results We found that the Ras-ERK pathway, is not only essential for long-term potentiation induced with a high frequency stimulation protocol (HFS-LTP) in the dorsal striatum, but also for its reversal, synaptic depotentiation. Ablation of Ras-guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 1 (Ras-GRF1), a neuronal activator of Ras proteins, causes a specific loss of HFS-LTP in the medium spiny neurons in the direct pathway without affecting LTP in the indirect pathway. Analysis of LTP in animals with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions (6-OHDA) rendered dyskinetic with chronic L-DOPA treatment reveals a complex, Ras-GRF1 and pathway-independent, apparently stochastic involvement of ERK.Conclusions These data not only demonstrate a central role for Ras-ERK signaling in striatal LTP, depotentiation, and LTP restored after L-DOPA treatment but also disclose multifaceted synaptic adaptations occurring in response to dopaminergic denervation and pulsatile administration of L-DOPA.


Mori F.,NeuroLogica | Nicoletti C.G.,NeuroLogica | Rossi S.,NeuroLogica | Motta C.,NeuroLogica | And 11 more authors.
NeuroMolecular Medicine | Year: 2014

During multiple sclerosis (MS) inflammatory attacks, and in subsequent clinical recovery phases, immune cells contribute to neuronal and oligodendroglial cell survival and tissue repair by secreting growth factors. Animal studies showed that growth factors also play a substantial role in regulating synaptic plasticity, and namely in long-term potentiation (LTP). LTP could drive clinical recovery in relapsing patients by restoring the excitability of denervated neurons. We recently reported that maintenance of synaptic plasticity reserve is crucial to contrast clinical deterioration in MS and that the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) may play a key role in its regulation. We also reported that a Hebbian form of LTP-like cortical plasticity, explored by paired associative stimulation (PAS), correlates with clinical recovery from a relapse in MS. Here, we explored the role of PDGF in clinical recovery and in adaptive neuroplasticity in relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS) patients. We found a correlation between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) PDGF concentrations and the extent of clinical recovery after a relapse, as full recovery was more likely observed in patients with high PDGF concentrations and poor recovery in subjects with low PDGF levels. Consistently with the idea that PDGF-driven synaptic plasticity contributes to attenuate the clinical consequences of tissue damage in RR-MS, we also found a striking correlation between CSF levels of PDGF and the amplitude of LTP-like cortical plasticity explored by PAS. CSF levels of fibroblast growth factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor did not correlate with clinical recovery nor with measures of synaptic transmission and plasticity. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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