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Orekhov A.N.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | Andreeva E.R.,Institute of Experimental Cardiology | Andrianova I.V.,Institute of Experimental Cardiology | Bobryshev Y.V.,University of New South Wales
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2010

Increased cell proliferation in early atherosclerotic lesions is recognized as an essential event in atherogenesis but the levels of cell proliferation in the different stages of atherosclerotic plague formation in different types of human large arteries are still insufficiently studied. In the present work, we studied intima thickness and proliferation of newly "infiltrated" hematogenous and resident cells in atherosclerotic lesions of the carotid and coronary arteries and compared these parameters with those in the aorta, which we reported in an earlier publication (Orekhov et al. [8]). Analysis of intima thickness and proliferation in grossly unaffected intima and in different types of atherosclerotic lesions (initial lesions, fatty streaks, lipofibrous plaques, and fibrous plaques) revealed that, although there were similar tendencies in the change of the infiltration levels of hematogenous cells and proliferation in different types of arteries, there were significant quantitative differences between different types of arteries. Hematogenous cells in lipofibrous plaques of the coronary and carotid arteries were found to account for a third and almost for a half of the total cell population, respectively, while atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta, as shown by us previously, contain no more than 15% of hematogenous cells. This suggests that the contribution of hematogenous cells to the development of atherosclerosis in the carotid and coronary arteries appears to be more significant than in the aorta. Despite the differences in the numbers of accumulating hematogenous cells in the intima, a similar "bell-shaped" dependence of cell numbers on the lesion type, involved the following sequence: unaffected intima - initial lesions - fatty streaks - lipofibrous plaques - fibrous plaques, was detected in the coronary and carotid arteries. The visualization of PCNA-positive cells in atherosclerotic and unaffected zones of the coronary and carotid arteries revealed similar patterns of the distribution of proliferating cells. The maximum numbers of PCNA-positive resident cells were identified in lipofibrous plaques. The changes in the total cell numbers were found to be accompanied by the changes in the numbers of both proliferating resident cells and proliferating hematogenous cells. According to our knowledge, this is the first report that provides factual data about the similarities and differences in cell composition and proliferation between different types of large arteries in which the development of atherosclerosis is of crucial importance. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Pliyev B.K.,Moscow State University | Menshikov M.Y.,Institute of Experimental Cardiology
Inflammation | Year: 2010

Soluble form of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is markedly increased in biological fluids during different inflammatory conditions. It has previously been observed that the highest suPAR concentrations in inflammatory exudates tend to be associated with the presence of high number of neutrophils. Guided by this observation and our recent finding that activated neutrophils release suPAR we investigated whether neutrophils can be a source of suPAR during the inflammatory response in vivo. To address this question we conducted the comparative analysis of neutrophils isolated from the paired samples of synovial fluid (SF) and peripheral blood (PB) of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Freshly isolated SF neutrophils released significantly (p < 0.01) higher amounts of suPAR compared with PB neutrophils. We demonstrated that neutrophils from both sources release predominantly the truncated D2D3 form of suPAR. Migration of formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1)-transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells toward the supernatants harvested from in vitro cultured SF neutrophils was significantly diminished when D2D3 form of suPAR was immunodepleted from the supernatants. Taken together, these data demonstrate that neutrophils, first, contribute to or are responsible for the generation of the increased suPAR levels during the inflammatory response and, second, release the chemotactically active form of suPAR that might be involved in the recruitment of formyl peptide receptors-expressing leukocytes into the inflamed tissues. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Maksimenko A.V.,Institute of Experimental Cardiology
Russian Chemical Bulletin | Year: 2015

The functions of endothelial glycocalyx as a regulator of plasma homeostasis and vessel wall homeostasis were considered. The state-of-the-art data of glycocalyx damage by some pathological processes were integrated. The topical task for protection and restoration of the damaged glycocalyx by therapeutic means was formulated. The research approaches for the search for such agents were surveyed and good prospects of multi-disciplinary development of the agents by specialists in different fields were emphasized. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Aliev M.K.,Institute of Experimental Cardiology | Tikhonov A.N.,Moscow State University
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Using a Monte Carlo simulation technique, we have modeled 3D diffusion of low molecular weight metabolites inside a skeletal muscle cell. The following structural elements are considered: (i) a regular lattice of actin and myosin filaments inside a myofibril, (ii) the membranes of sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria surrounding the myofibrils, (iii) a set of myofibrils inside a skeletal muscle cell encircled by the outer cell membrane, and (iv) an additional set of regular intracellular structures (" macrocompartments") embedded into the cell interior. The macrocompartments are considered to simulate diffusion restrictions because of hypothetical cylindrical structures (16-22 μm in diameter) suggested earlier (de Graaf et al. Biophys J 78: 1657-1664, 2000). This model allowed us to calculate the apparent coefficients of particle diffusion in the radial and axial directions, D⊥ app and DII app, respectively. Particle movements in the axial direction are considered, at first approximation, as unrestricted diffusion (DII app = const). The apparent coefficient of radial diffusion, D⊥ app, decreases with time because of particle collisions with myofilaments and other rigid obstacles. Results of our random walk simulations are in fairly good agreement with experimental data on NMR measurements of restricted radial diffusion of phosphocreatine in white and red skeletal muscles of goldfish (Kinsey et al. NMR Biomed 12:1-7, 1999). Particle reflections from the low-permeable borders of macrocompartments (efficient diameter, d MC eff≈ 9.2-10.4 μm) are the prerequisite for agreeing theoretical and experimental data. The low-permeable coverage of hypothetical macrocompartments (99.8% of coverage) provides the main contribution to time-dependent decrease in D⊥ app.


Maksimenko A.V.,Institute of Experimental Cardiology | Vavaev A.V.,Institute of Experimental Cardiology
Heart International | Year: 2012

The focus in antioxidant research is on enzyme derivative investigations. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is of particular interest, as it demonstrates in vivo the protective action against development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus. The reliable association of coronary artery disease with decreased level of heparin-released EC-SOD was established in clinical research. To create a base for and to develop antioxidant therapy, various SOD isozymes, catalase (CAT), methods of gene therapy, and combined applications of enzymes are used. Covalent bienzyme SODCHS-CAT conjugate (CHS, chondroitin sulphate) showed high efficacy and safety as the drug candidate. There is an evident trend to use the components of glycocalyx and extracellular matrix for target delivery of medical substances. Development of new enzyme antioxidants for therapeutic application is closely connected with progress in medical biotechnology, pharmaceutical industry, and bioeconomy. © A.V. Maksimenko and A.V. Vavaev, 2012.


Maksimenko A.V.,Institute of Experimental Cardiology | Turashev A.D.,Institute of Experimental Cardiology
Biochemistry Research International | Year: 2012

The progress in reperfusion therapy dictated the necessity for developing new tools and procedures for adjacent/additional therapy of acute cardiovascular disorders. The adjacent therapy is targeted on the damage of the microcirculation, leading to the unfavorable prognosis for the patients. The no-reflow phenomenon holds special place in the multifactorial etiology of the microcirculation disorders, offering a new challenge in treating the patients associated with ST-segment elevation on ECG at myocardial infarction. One of the numerous causes of no-reflow, the influence of the endothelial glycocalyx of the microcirculation, is analyzed. The results obtained in the studies of the endothelial glycocalyx ultrastructure are generalized, the effect that the fragments of the glycocalyx glycosaminoglycans have on the function of the vascular wall is demonstrated. The trends in searching for correlations between the thickness of the capillary glycocalyx and the cardiovascular disease risk are noted. Copyright © 2012 Alexander V. Maksimenko and Askar D. Turashev.


Pliyev B.K.,Moscow State University | Antonova O.A.,Institute of Experimental Cardiology | Menshikov M.,Moscow State University
Molecular Immunology | Year: 2011

The mechanisms underlying migration of neutrophils across endothelium are not completely understood. The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) plays a key role in neutrophil adhesion and migration. In the present study, we addressed whether uPAR regulates neutrophil transendothelial migration. We first showed that siRNA-mediated knockdown of uPAR in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) did not affect neutrophil migration across HUVEC monolayers indicating that endothelial uPAR does not regulate neutrophil transmigration. In contrast, the transmigration was significantly inhibited by Fab' fragment of anti-uPAR monoclonal antibody and proteolytically inactive urokinase (uPA), whereas inhibition of proteolytical activity of endogenous uPA (with amiloride or plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) did not affect the transmigration. Both the anti-uPAR Fab' fragment and proteolytically inactive uPA did not exert significant effects upon the transmigration conducted in the presence of F(ab') 2 fragment of blocking antibody to integrin Mac-1 indicating that uPAR regulates Mac-1-dependent transmigration. Mac-1-dependent, but not Mac-1-independent, transmigration was significantly reduced in the presence of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and d-mannose, the saccharides that disrupt uPAR/Mac-1 association, but was unaffected in the presence of control saccharides (d-sorbitol and sucrose). We conclude that physical association of uPAR with Mac-1 mediates the regulatory effect of uPAR over the transmigration. Finally, we provide evidence that the functional cooperation between uPAR and Mac-1 is essential at both adhesion and diapedesis steps of neutrophil migration across endothelium. Thus, uPAR expressed on neutrophil plasma membrane regulates transendothelial migration independently of uPA proteolytical activity and acting as a cofactor for integrin Mac-1. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Ezhov M.V.,Institute Of Clinical Cardiology Named After Al Myasnikov | Safarova M.S.,Institute Of Clinical Cardiology Named After Al Myasnikov | Afanasieva O.I.,Institute of Experimental Cardiology | Kukharchuk V.V.,Institute Of Clinical Cardiology Named After Al Myasnikov | Pokrovsky S.N.,Institute of Experimental Cardiology
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2015

Objective: To evaluate the relationships of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) concentration and apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) phenotype to major adverse cardiovascular events after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in long-term follow-up. Methods: This single-center study included 356 patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) who underwent successful CABG. At baseline, we assessed the patient's risk factor profile for atherosclerosis, Lp(a) concentration and apo(a) phenotype. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI). The secondary endpoint also included hospitalization for recurrent or unstable angina and repeat revascularization. Results: Over a mean of 8.5±3.5 years (range 0.9-15.0 years), the primary and secondary endpoints were registered in 46 (13%) and 107 (30%) patients, respectively. Patients with Lp(a) ≥30mg/dL were at significantly greater risk for the primary endpoint (hazard ratio (HR) 2.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.76-5.03, p<0.001) and secondary endpoint (HR 3.47, 95% CI 2.48-4.85, p<0.001) than patients with Lp(a) values <30mg/dL. The low molecular-weight apo(a) phenotype was also associated with higher risk of both primary and secondary endpoints (3.57 (1.87-6.82) and 3.05 (2.00-4.62), respectively; p<0.001 for both), regardless of conventional risk factors and statins use. Conclusion: In stable CHD patients Lp(a) concentration and low molecular-weight apo(a) phenotype are independently associated with three-fold increase in risk of major adverse cardiovascular events within 15 years after CABG. Lp(a) levels may provide an additional information for postoperative cardiovascular risk assessment. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Tkachuk V.A.,Moscow State University | Vorotnikov A.V.,Institute of Experimental Cardiology
Diabetes Mellitus | Year: 2014

Insulin resistance (IR) is a phenomenon associated with an impaired ability of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake by target cells and to reduce the blood glucose level. A response increase in insulin secretion by the pancreas and hyperinsulinemia are compensatory reactions of the body. The development of IR leads to the inability of target cells to respond to insulin that results in developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome. For this reason, the metabolic syndrome is defined in practice as a combination of IR with one or more pathologies such as T2DM, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and some others. However, a combination of high blood glucose and insulin levels always serves as its physiological criterion. IR should be considered as a systemic failure of the endocrine regulation in the body. Physiological causes of IR are diverse. The main ones are nutritional overload and accumulation of certain lipids and their metabolites in cells, low physical activity, chronic inflammation and stress of various nature, including oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress (impairment of damaged protein degradation in the cell). Recent studies have demonstrated that these physiological mechanisms likely act through a single intracellular scenario. This is the impairment of signal transduction from the insulin receptor to its targets via the negative feedback mechanism in intracellular insulin-dependent signaling cascades. This review describes the physiological and intracellular mechanisms of insulin action and focuses on their abnormalities upon IR development. Finally, feasible trends in early molecular diagnosis and therapy of IR are discussed.


Maksimenko A.V.,Institute of Experimental Cardiology
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity | Year: 2016

Undiminishing actuality of enzyme modification for therapeutic purposes has been confirmed by application of modified enzymes in clinical practice and numerous research data on them. Intravenous injection of the superoxide dismutase-chondroitin sulfate-catalase (SOD-CHS-CAT) conjugate in preventive and medicative regimes in rats with endotoxin shock induced with a lipopolysaccharide bolus has demonstrated that antioxidant agents not only effectively prevent damage caused by oxidative stress (as believed previously) but also can be used for antioxidative stress therapy. The results obtained emphasize the importance of investigation into the pathogenesis of vascular damage and the role of oxidative stress in it. The effects of intravenous medicative injection of SOD-CHS-CAT in a rat model of endotoxin shock have demonstrated a variety in the activity of this conjugate in addition to prevention of NO conversion in peroxynitrite upon interaction with O 2 - superoxide radical. Together with the literature data, these findings offer a prospect for the study of NO-independent therapeutic effects of SOD-CHS-CAT, implying the importance of a better insight into the mechanisms of the conjugate activity in modeled cardiovascular damage involving vasoactive agents other than NO. © 2016 Alexander V. Maksimenko.

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