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Kaucka M.,Institute of Experimental Biology | Plevova K.,CEITEC Central European Institute of Technology | Plevova K.,University Hospital Brno and Medical Faculty | Pavlova S.,CEITEC Central European Institute of Technology | And 25 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2013

The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is a conserved pathway that regulates cell migration and polarity in various contexts. Here we show that key PCP pathway components such as Vangl2, Celsr1, Prickle1, FZD3, FZD7, Dvl2, Dvl3, and casein kinase 1 (CK1)-e are upregulated in B lymphocytes of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Elevated levels of PCP proteins accumulate in advanced stages of the disease. Here, we show that PCP pathway is required for the migration and transendothelial invasion of CLL cells and that patients with high expression of PCP genes, FZD3, FZD7, and PRICKLE1, have a less favorable clinical prognosis. Our findings establish that the PCP pathway acts as an important regulator of CLL cell migration and invasion. PCP proteins represent an important class of molecules regulating pathogenic interaction of CLL cells with their microenvironment. © 2013 American Association for Cancer Research.


Smerdova L.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Smerdova J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Smerdova J.,Institute of Experimental Biology | Kabatkova M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | And 5 more authors.
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2014

Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is an enzyme that has a unique tumor-specific pattern of expression and is capable of bioactivating a wide range of carcinogenic compounds. We have reported previously that coordinated upregulation of CYP1B1 by inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands, may increase bioactivation of promutagens, such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in epithelial cells. Here, we extend those studies by describing a novel mechanism participating in the regulation of CYP1B1 expression, which involves activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) and mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1). Using inhibitors of p38 and MSKs, as well as mouse embryonic cells derived from p38α-deficient and MSK1/2 double knockout mice, we show here that TNF-α potentiates CYP1B1 upregulation via the p38/MSK1 kinase cascade. Effects of this inflammatory cytokine on CYP1B1 expression further involve the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). The inhibition of the P-TEFb subunit, cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), which phosphorylates RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), prevented the enhanced CYP1B1 induction by a combination of BaP and inflammatory cytokine. Furthermore, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we found that cotreatment of epithelial cells with TNF-α and BaP resulted in enhanced recruitment of both CDK9 and RNAPII to the Cyp1b1 gene promoter. Overall, these results have implications concerning the contribution of inflammatory factors to carcinogenesis, since enhanced CYP1B1 induction during inflammation may alter metabolism of exogenous carcinogens, as well as endogenous CYP1B1 substrates playing role in tumor development. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.


Novotna J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Novotna J.,Central European Technology Institute | Novotna J.,Czech Republic Crop Research Institute | Olsovska J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The gene lmbB2 of the lincomycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces lincolnensis ATCC 25466 was shown to code for an unusual tyrosine hydroxylating enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of this clinically important antibiotic. LmbB2 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified near to homogeneity and shown to convert tyrosine to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). In contrast to the well-known tyrosine hydroxylases (EC 1.14.16.2) and tyrosinases (EC 1.14.18.1), LmbB2 was identified as a heme protein. Mass spectrometry and Soret band-excited Raman spectroscopy of LmbB2 showed that LmbB2 contains heme b as prosthetic group. The CO-reduced differential absorption spectra of LmbB2 showed that the coordination of Fe was different from that of cytochrome P450 enzymes. LmbB2 exhibits sequence similarity to Orf13 of the anthramycin biosynthetic gene cluster, which has recently been classified as a heme peroxidase. Tyrosine hydroxylating activity of LmbB2 yielding DOPA in the presence of (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin (BH4) was also observed. Reaction mechanism of this unique heme peroxidases family is discussed. Also, tyrosine hydroxylation was confirmed as the first step of the amino acid branch of the lincomycin biosynthesis. © 2013 Novotna et al.


Banerjee I.,Jadavpur University | Marek J.,Institute of Experimental Biology | Herchel R.,Palacky University | Ali M.,Jadavpur University
Polyhedron | Year: 2010

Four azide bridged dinuclear copper(II) complexes, [Cu2(LX)2(N3)2](ClO4)2, with LX = substituted N,N-bis[(3,5-dimethylpyrazole-1-yl)-methyl]benzylamine, [X = H (1), OMe (2), Me (3) and Cl (4)] have been synthesized, out of which complexes 1 and 2 have been characterized structurally. In Complex 1 the two bridging azide ligands have connected the two metal centers in an end-on (EO) fashion with aSP (asymmetric Square Pyramidal) geometry and showed an weak antiferromagnetic interaction (J = -3.34 cm-1). On the contrary, in complex 2, the two metal centers have been connected in end-to-end (EE) fashion exhibiting moderately strong ferromagnetic interaction (J = +19.7 cm-1). Cyclic voltammetric studies performed on all the four complexes show a reasonably good correlations when E1/2 for CuIICuII → CuIICuIII and CuIICuIII → CuIIICuIII oxidations are plotted against σ (substituent constants) with ρ = -0.182 (R2 = 0.92) and -0.684 (R2 = 0.99) respectively. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Redova M.,Institute of Experimental Biology | Chlapek P.,Institute of Experimental Biology | Loja T.,Institute of Experimental Biology | Zitterbart K.,Masaryk University | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine | Year: 2010

We investigated the possible modulation by LOX/COX inhibitors of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced cell differentiation in two established neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2). Caffeic acid, as an inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, and celecoxib, as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase 2, were chosen for this study. The effects of the combined treatment with ATRA and LOX/COX inhibitors on neuroblastoma cells were studied using cell morphology assessment, detection of differentiation markers by immunoblotting, measurement of proliferation activity, and cell cycle analysis and apoptosis detection by flow cytometry. The results clearly demonstrated the potential of caffeic acid to enhance ATRA-induced cell differentiation, especially in the SK-N-BE(2) cell line, whereas application of celecoxib alone or with ATRA led predominantly to cytotoxic effects in both cell lines. Moreover, the higher sensitivity of the SK-N-BE(2) cell line to combined treatment with ATRA and LOX/COX inhibitors suggests that cancer stem cells are a main target for this therapeutic approach. Nevertheless, further detailed study of the phenomenon of enhanced cell differentiation by expression profiling is needed.


Sokolowska K.,Institute of Experimental Biology | Brysz A.M.,Institute of Experimental Biology | Zagorska-Marek B.,Institute of Experimental Biology
Plant signaling & behavior | Year: 2013

Symplasmic short- and long-distance communication may be regulated at different levels of plant body organization. It depends on cell-to-cell transport modulated by plasmodesmata conductivity and frequency but above all on morphogenetic fields that integrate a plant at the supracellular level. Their control of physiological and developmental processes is especially important in trees, where the continuum consists of 3-dimensional systems of: 1) stem cells in cambium, and 2) living parenchyma cells in the secondary conductive tissues. We found that long-distance symplasmic transport in trees is spatially regulated. Uneven distribution of fluorescent tracer in cambial cells along the branches examined illustrates an unknown intrinsic phenomenon that can possibly be important for plant organism integration. Here we illustrate the spatial dynamics of symplasmic transport in cambium, test and exclude the role of callose in its regulation, and discuss the mechanism that could possibly be responsible for the maintenance of this spatial pattern.


Bouchal P.,Masaryk University | Struharova I.,Masaryk University | Budinska E.,Masaryk University | Sedo O.,Institute of Experimental Biology | And 4 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics | Year: 2010

The switch from aerobic to anaerobic respiration in the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans is orchestrated by the action of three FNR-type transcription regulators FnrP, NNR and NarR, which are sensors for oxygen, nitric oxide and nitrite, respectively. In this work, we analyzed the protein composition of four strains (wild type, FnrP-, NNR- and NarR-mutant strains) grown aerobically, semiaerobically and semiaerobically in the presence of nitrate to discover the global role of FNR-family transcription regulators using proteomics, with data validation at the transcript and genome levels. Expression profiles were acquired using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for 737 protein spots, in which 640 proteins were identified using mass spectrometry. The annotated 2-D proteome map provided the most comprehensive coverage of P. denitrificans proteome available to-date and can be accessed on-line at http://www.mpiib-berlin.mpg.de/2D-PAGE/. Our results revealed several types of regulation under the conditions tested: (1) FnrP-controlled regulation of nitrous oxide reductase, UspA and OmpW as confirmed at protein, transcript and DNA level (position of FNR boxes). (2) Proteins regulated via additional regulators, including proteins involved in NNR and NarR regulons: nitrate reductase β-subunit, TonB-dependent receptors, nitrite reductase, a TenA-type transcription regulator, and an unknown protein with an alpha/beta hydrolase fold. (3) Proteins whose expression was affected mainly by the growth condition. This group contains SSU ribosomal protein S305 / σ54 modulation protein, and two short-chain reductase-dehydrogenase proteins. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Blackburn H.D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Toishibekov Y.,Institute of Experimental Biology | Toishibekov M.,Institute of Experimental Biology | Welsh C.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Genetica | Year: 2011

Domestic sheep in Kazakhstan may provide an interesting source of genetic variability due to their proximity to the center of domestication and the Silk Route. Additionally, those breeds have never been compared to New World sheep populations. This report compares genetic diversity among five Kazakhstan (KZ) and 13 United States (US) sheep breeds (N = 442) using 25 microsatellite markers from the FAO panel. The KZ breeds had observed and expected measures of heterozygosity greater than 0.60 and an average number of alleles per locus of 7.8. In contrast, US sheep breeds had observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.37 to 0.62 and had an average number of alleles of 5.7. A Bayesian analysis indicated there were two primary populations (K = 2). Surprisingly, the US breeds were near evenly split between the two clusters, while all of the KZ breeds were placed in one of the two clusters. Pooling breeds within country of sample origin showed KZ and US populations to have similar levels of expected heterozygosity and the average number of alleles per locus. The results of breeds pooled within country suggest that there was no difference between countries for these diversity measures using this set of neutral markers. This finding suggests that populations' geographically isolated from centers of domestication can be more diverse than previously thought, and as a result, conservation strategies can be adjusted accordingly. Furthermore, these results suggest there may be limited need for countries to alter the protocols for trade and exchange of animal genetic resources that are in place today, since no one population has a unique set of private alleles. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).


Aliyeva-Schnorr L.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Beier S.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Karafiatova M.,Institute of Experimental Biology | Schmutzer T.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | And 4 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2015

Genetic maps are based on the frequency of recombination and often show different positions of molecular markers in comparison to physical maps, particularly in the centromere that is generally poor in meiotic recombinations. To decipher the position and order of DNA sequences genetically mapped to the centromere of barley (Hordeum vulgare) chromosome 3H, fluorescence in situ hybridization with mitotic metaphase and meiotic pachytene chromosomes was performed with 70 genomic single-copy probes derived from 65 fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) contigs genetically assigned to this recombination cold spot. The total physical distribution of the centromeric 5.5 cM bin of 3H comprises 58% of the mitotic metaphase chromosome length. Mitotic and meiotic chromatin of this recombination-poor region is preferentially marked by a heterochromatin-typical histone mark (H3K9me2), while recombination enriched subterminal chromosome regions are enriched in euchromatin-typical histone marks (H3K4me2, H3K4me3, H3K27me3) suggesting that the meiotic recombination rate could be influenced by the chromatin landscape. Significance Statement To fully exploit the barley genome for crop improvement, it is necessary to better understand the relationship between physical and genetic distances. Here we used low-copy probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization to order contigs corresponding to a non-recombining genetic centromere of barley. © 2015 The Authors.


PubMed | Institute of Experimental Biology and Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology | Year: 2015

Genetic maps are based on the frequency of recombination and often show different positions of molecular markers in comparison to physical maps, particularly in the centromere that is generally poor in meiotic recombinations. To decipher the position and order of DNA sequences genetically mapped to the centromere of barley (Hordeum vulgare) chromosome 3H, fluorescence in situ hybridization with mitotic metaphase and meiotic pachytene chromosomes was performed with 70 genomic single-copy probes derived from 65 fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) contigs genetically assigned to this recombination cold spot. The total physical distribution of the centromeric 5.5 cM bin of 3H comprises 58% of the mitotic metaphase chromosome length. Mitotic and meiotic chromatin of this recombination-poor region is preferentially marked by a heterochromatin-typical histone mark (H3K9me2), while recombination enriched subterminal chromosome regions are enriched in euchromatin-typical histone marks (H3K4me2, H3K4me3, H3K27me3) suggesting that the meiotic recombination rate could be influenced by the chromatin landscape.

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