Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research

Dhaka, Bangladesh

Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research

Dhaka, Bangladesh
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Homaira N.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | Luby S.P.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | Alamgir A.S.M.,Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research | Islam K.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | And 12 more authors.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2012

Objective To estimate influenza-associated mortality in Bangladesh in 2009. Methods In four hospitals in Bangladesh, respiratory samples were collected twice a month throughout 2009 from inpatients aged < 5 years with severe pneumonia and from older inpatients with severe acute respiratory infection. The samples were tested for influenza virus ribonucleic acid (RNA) using polymerase chain reaction. The deaths in 2009 in five randomly selected unions (the smallest administrative units in Bangladesh) in each hospital's catchment area were then investigated using formal records and informal group discussions. The deaths of those who had reportedly died within 14 days of suddenly developing fever with cough and/or a sore throat were assumed to be influenza-associated. The rate of such deaths in 2009 in each of the catchment areas was then estimated from the number of apparently influenza-associated deaths in the sampled unions, the proportion of the sampled inpatients in the local hospital who tested positive for influenza virus RNA, and the estimated number of residents of the sampled unions. Findings Of the 2500 people known to have died in 2009 in all 20 study unions, 346 (14%) reportedly had fever with cough and/or sore throat within 14 days of their deaths. The estimated mean annual influenza-associated mortality in these unions was 11 per 100 000 population: 1.5, 4.0 and 125 deaths per 100 000 among those aged < 5, 5-59 and > 59 years, respectively. Conclusion The highest burden of influenza-associated mortality in Bangladesh in 2009 was among the elderly.

Chakraborty A.,Center for Communicable Diseases | Khan S.U.,Center for Communicable Diseases | Hasnat M.A.,Center for Communicable Diseases | Parveen S.,Center for Communicable Diseases | And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2012

During August 2009-October 2010, a multidisciplinary team investigated 14 outbreaks of animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh to identify the etiology, pathway of transmission, and social, behavioral, and cultural factors that led to these outbreaks. The team identified 140 animal cases of anthrax and 273 human cases of cutaneous anthrax. Ninety one percent of persons in whom cutaneous anthrax developed had history of butchering sick animals, handling raw meat, contact with animal skin, or were present at slaughtering sites. Each year, Bacillus anthracis of identical genotypes were isolated from animal and human cases. Inadequate livestock vaccination coverage, lack of awareness of the risk of anthrax transmission from animal to humans, social norms and poverty contributed to these outbreaks. Addressing these challenges and adopting a joint animal and human health approach could contribute to detecting and preventing such outbreaks in the future. Copyright © 2012 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Minamoto K.,Kumamoto University | Mascie-Taylor C.G.N.,University of Cambridge | Karim E.,Health and Life science Partnership | Moji K.,Humanity | Rahman M.,Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research
Public Health | Year: 2012

Objective: To investigate the long-term impact of health education in intestinal helminth infection control in rural Bangladesh. Study design: Longitudinal study to compare knowledge, awareness and practice for intestinal helminths between four communities: two receiving health education and two not receiving health education. Methods: Parents of 1497 children aged between 2 and 8 years [781 (52.2%) received health education] were investigated by interview at baseline, endline (18 months) and follow-up (5 years). Results: Health education had a significant effect on the installment of tubewells and latrines, but only had a temporary effect on health knowledge. Conclusion: This long-term follow-up study showed the lack of sustainability of knowledge and awareness in the long-term after health education interventions. © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health.

Islam M.S.,Center for Communicable Diseases | Luby S.P.,Center for Communicable Diseases | Luby S.P.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Sultana R.,Center for Communicable Diseases | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Infection Control | Year: 2014

Background Family caregivers are integral to patient care in Bangladeshi public hospitals. This study explored family caregivers' activities and their perceptions and practices related to disease transmission and prevention in public hospitals. Methods Trained qualitative researchers conducted a total of 48 hours of observation in 3 public tertiary care hospitals and 12 in-depth interviews with family caregivers. Results Family caregivers provided care 24 hours a day, including bedside nursing, cleaning care, and psychologic support. During observations, family members provided 2,065 episodes of care giving, 75% (1,544) of which involved close contact with patients. We observed family caregivers washing their hands with soap on only 4 occasions. The majority of respondents said diseases are transmitted through physical contact with surfaces and objects that have been contaminated with patient secretions and excretions, and avoiding contact with these contaminated objects would help prevent disease. Conclusion Family caregivers are at risk for hospital-acquired infection from their repeated exposure to infectious agents combined with their inadequate hand hygiene and knowledge about disease transmission. Future research should explore potential strategies to improve family caregivers' knowledge about disease transmission and reduce family caregiver exposures, which may be accomplished by improving care provided by health care workers. Copyright © 2014 Published by Elsevier Inc.

Homaira N.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | Luby S.P.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | Luby S.P.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Petri W.A.,University of Virginia | And 18 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood death in Bangladesh. We conducted a longitudinal study to estimate the incidence of virus-associated pneumonia in children aged &2 years in a low-income urban community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: We followed a cohort of children for two years. We collected nasal washes when children presented with respiratory symptoms. Study physicians diagnosed children with cough and age-specific tachypnea and positive lung findings as pneumonia case-patients. We tested respiratory samples for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinoviruses, human metapneumovirus (HMPV), influenza viruses, human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV 1, 2, 3), and adenoviruses using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. Results: Between April 2009-March 2011, we followed 515 children for 730 child-years. We identified a total of 378 pneumonia episodes, 77% of the episodes were associated with a respiratory viral pathogen. The overall incidence of pneumonia associated with a respiratory virus infection was 40/100 child-years. The annual incidence of pneumonia/100 child-years associated with a specific respiratory virus in children aged &2years was 12.5 for RSV, 6 for rhinoviruses, 6 for HMPV, 4 for influenza viruses, 3 for HPIV and 2 for adenoviruses. Conclusion: Young children in Dhaka are at high risk of childhood pneumonia and the majority of these episodes are associated with viral pathogens. Developing effective low-cost strategies for prevention are a high priority.

Bhuiyan M.U.,Center for Communicable Diseases | Luby S.P.,Center for Communicable Diseases | Luby S.P.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Zaman R.U.,Center for Communicable Diseases | And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2014

During April 2007-April 2010, surveillance physicians in adult and pediatric medicine wards of three tertiary public hospitals in Bangladesh identified patients who developed hospital-acquired diarrhea. We calculated incidence of hospital-acquired diarrhea. To identify risk factors, we compared these patients to randomly selected patients from the same wards who were admitted > 72 hours without having diarrhea. The incidence of hospital-acquired diarrhea was 4.8 cases per 1,000 patient-days. Children < 1 year of age were more likely to develop hospital-acquired diarrhea than older children. The risk of developing hospital-acquired diarrhea increased for each additional day of hospitalization beyond 72 hours, whereas exposure to antibiotics within 72 hours of admission decreased the risk. There were three deaths among case-patients; all were infants. Patients, particularly young children, are at risk for hospital-acquired diarrhea and associated deaths in Bangladeshi hospitals. Further research to identify the responsible organisms and transmission routes could inform prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research and Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

We combined hospital-based surveillance and health utilization survey data to estimate the incidence of respiratory viral infections associated hospitalization among children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh.Surveillance physicians collected respiratory specimens from children aged <5 years hospitalized with respiratory illness and residing in the primary hospital catchment areas. We tested respiratory specimens for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, influenza, adenovirus and rhinoviruses using rRT-PCR. During 2013, we conducted a health utilization survey in the primary catchment areas of the hospitals to determine the proportion of all hospitalizations for respiratory illness among children aged <5 years at the surveillance hospitals during the preceding 12 months. We estimated the respiratory virus-specific incidence of hospitalization by dividing the estimated number of hospitalized children with a laboratory confirmed infection with a respiratory virus by the population aged <5 years of the catchment areas and adjusted for the proportion of children who were hospitalized at the surveillance hospitals.We estimated that the annual incidence per 1000 children (95% CI) of all cause associated respiratory hospitalization was 11.5 (10-12). The incidences per 1000 children (95% CI) per year for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza infections were 3(2-3), 0.5(0.4-0.8), 0.4 (0.3-0.6), 0.4 (0.3-0.6), and 0.4 (0.3-0.6) respectively. The incidences per 1000 children (95%CI) of rhinovirus-associated infections among hospitalized children were 5 (3-7), 2 (1-3), 1 (0.6-2), and 3 (2-4) in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively.Our data suggest that respiratory viruses are associated with a substantial burden of hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Bangladesh.

Khatun S.,Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research | Chakraborty A.,Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research | Rahman M.,Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research | Nasreen Banu N.,Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015

Background The first identified Chikungunya outbreak occurred in Bangladesh in 2008. In late October 2011, a local health official from Dohar Sub-district, Dhaka District, reported an outbreak of undiagnosed fever and joint pain. We investigated the outbreak to confirm the etiology, describe the clinical presentation, and identify associated vectors. Methodology During November 2–21, 2011, we conducted house-to-house surveys to identify suspected cases, defined as any inhabitant of Char Kushai village with fever followed by joint pain in the extremities with onset since August 15, 2011. We collected blood specimens and clinical histories from self-selected suspected cases using a structured questionnaire. Blood samples were tested for IgM antibodies against Chikungunya virus. The village was divided into nine segments and we collected mosquito larvae from water containers in seven randomly selected houses in each segment. We calculated the Breteau index for the village and identified the mosquito species. Results The attack rate was 29% (1105/3840) and 29% of households surveyed had at least one suspected case: 15% had ≥3. The attack rate was 38% (606/1589) in adult women and 25% in adult men (320/1287). Among the 1105 suspected case-patients, 245 self-selected for testing and 80% of those (196/245) had IgM antibodies. In addition to fever and joint pain, 76% (148/196) of confirmed cases had rash and 38%(75/196) had long-lasting joint pain. The village Breteau index was 35 per 100 and 89%(449/504) of hatched mosquitoes were Aedes albopictus. Conclusion The evidence suggests that this outbreak was due to Chikungunya. The high attack rate suggests that the infection was new to this area, and the increased risk among adult women suggests that risk of transmission may have been higher around households. Chikungunya is an emerging infection in Bangladesh and current surveillance and prevention strategies are insufficient to mount an effective public health response. © 2015 Khatun et al.

Sultana Y.,Westmead Hospital | Sultana Y.,University of Sydney | Gilbert G.L.,Westmead Hospital | Gilbert G.L.,University of Sydney | And 3 more authors.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2012

Residents of a slum community of Dhaka city, Bangladesh were tested by serological and faecal examination for evidence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection. In stool specimens from a total of 147 participants Strongyloides larvae were found in 34 (23.1%) by Harada-Mori culture, 15 (10.2%) by agar plate culture (APC) and one (0.7%) by microscopy. Strongyloides IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies were found in 90 (61.2%), 46 (31.3%) and 53 (36.1%) of participants, respectively. A positive correlation was observed between total IgG levels and the presence of isotypes IgG1 and IgG4 (p<0.001). Six sera (4.0%) reacted to the recombinant filaria antigen Bm 14, three of which were Strongyloides IgG positive. This indicates either there is cross reactivity or some participants are co-infected with lymphatic filariasis. No correlations were found between positive serology and Strongyloides infection in stool, socio- demographic factors or domestic hygienic practices. However, positive stool cultures showed significant associations with irregular nail trimming, walking bare-foot and irregular hand washing after defecation (p<0.05). Other enteric parasites were detected in stools of some participants but their presence showed no correlation with S. stercoralis infection or socio demographic factors. This study confirms that squatters in this slum community in Dhaka have a high prevalence of S. stercoralis infection identified both by serological and coprological methods. © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Sultana Y.,Westmead Hospital | Sultana Y.,University of Sydney | Gilbert G.L.,Westmead Hospital | Gilbert G.L.,University of Sydney | And 3 more authors.
Parasitology | Year: 2012

Human strongyloidiasis is a neglected tropical disease with global distribution and this infection is caused by the parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of strongyloidiasis in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Sera from 1004 residents from a slum (group A) and 299 from city dwellers (group B) were tested for total IgG and IgG subclasses to Strongyloides antigen. There was a significant difference (PÅ <Å 0Å·001) in IgG seroprevalence between group A (22%) and group B (5%). Reactive IgG subclasses (IgG1 and IgG4) were also higher in group A (PÅ <Å 0Å·05). The seroprevalence of strongyloidiasis in group A increased with age but was unrelated to sex. The presence of reactive IgG to Strongyloides antigen had no correlation with either socio-economic or personal hygiene factors. However, a history of diarrhoea in a family member, in the past 6 months, but not in the respondents was associated with detection of antibodies to S. stercoralis (PÅ <Å 0Å·01). None of the sera from either group had an HTLV-I reaction. This study demonstrates that strongyloidiasis is prevalent in Dhaka, especially among slum dwellers, but concurrent infection with HTLV-I was not found. Future epidemiological studies should identify individual risk factors and other communities at risk so that appropriate interventions can be planned. © Cambridge University Press 2012.

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