Mount Sinai, NY, United States
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Ragin C.,Fox Chase Cancer Center | Mutetwa B.,SUNY Downstate Medical Center | Attong-Rogers A.,SUNY Downstate Medical Center | Roach V.,Dr Elizabeth Quamina National Cancer Registry of Trinidad and Tobago | Taioli E.,Institute of Translational Epidemiology
Infectious Agents and Cancer | Year: 2011

Background: Prostate cancer is the sixth leading cause of death from cancer among men worldwide. We have previously reported that prostate cancer survival rates for Caribbean-born males in the US was similar to survival rates of African-Americans and was higher than their counterparts diagnosed in the Caribbean. However, it is not clear whether differences in mortality could be attributed to differences in treatment. Methods. This current analysis seeks to further explore reasons for the geographic variation of prostate cancer survival for Caribbean-born men. This analysis included 2,554 Black newly diagnosed prostate cancer cases (960 cases diagnosed in the US and 1,594 cases diagnosed in the Caribbean). Clinical data were extracted from the cancer registry and clinical charts. Results: There were noted differences in the pattern of treatment for each place of birth category when stratified according to disease stage at diagnosis. Among the patients diagnosed with early-intermediate disease (stage I-III) the majority of US-born Brooklyn men were treated with surgery only (31%) and a similar pattern was observed for Caribbean-born Brooklyn men (35%). In contrast, the majority of Caribbean-born Trinidad & Tobago men were treated with hormone therapy (31%). Caribbean-born men diagnosed in the Caribbean had a significantly higher risk of death from prostate cancer (Adjusted Hazard [AdjHR]: 3.7, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 2.8-5.0) when compared with the risk of death for Caribbean-born males diagnosed in the US. This observation was consistent for each treatment group with the exception of the cases treated with hormone therapy only. For these cases, there was no difference in the risk of death between Caribbean-born males diagnosed in the Caribbean (AdjHR: 1.4, 95% CI: 0.8-2.6) compared to Caribbean-born males diagnosed in the US. Conclusions: In addition to difference in access and utilization of screening, differences in treatment strategy may also be a strong predictor of outcome for Caribbean-born males diagnosed with prostate cancer. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings. In addition, other environmental factors related to survival that was not considered in this analysis also need to be investigated. © 2011 Ragin et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Ragin C.,Fox Chase Cancer Center | Edwards R.,University of Pittsburgh | Larkins-Pettigrew M.,University of Pittsburgh | Taioli E.,Institute of Translational Epidemiology | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2011

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for cervical cancers and is associated with close to 36% of oropharyngeal cancers. There is increasing evidence that oral HPV transmission is related to sexual behavior but to our knowledge studies that involve women who have sex with women have not been performed. We examined the prevalence of oral HPV according to sexual behavior among a population-based sample of 118 women and have made some inferences of possible predictors of oral HPV infection. Women were categorized as heterosexual (history of vaginal sex and/or oral sex with males only, n = 75), bisexual (history of vaginal sex and oral sex with females, n = 32) and other (no history of vaginal sex but oral sex with females [homosexuals], virgins and women with incomplete sexual exposure data, n = 11) The prevalence of oral HPV infection was 12/118 (10.2%) for the overall study population and was not significantly different between heterosexual and bisexual women (10.7% (8/75) vs. 12.5% (4/32), p = 0.784). There was no oral HPV detected among homosexual women, virgins or among women where sexual exposure was unknown. Never smokers were more likely to be oral HPV+ compared to former smokers (Adjusted Odds Ratio (Adj OR) = 0.1, 95% CI, 0.0-1.1) and there was no difference in risk between never smokers and current smokers (Adj OR = 0.7, 95% CI, 0.1-4.6). Twenty-five percent (3/12) of oral HPV+ women had a history of HPV and/or genital warts compared to 9% (10/106) of oral HPV-women (p = 0.104). For the women with a history of vaginal sex (n = 110), oral HPV status was statistically significantly different according to oral sex exposure (p = 0.039). A higher proportion of oral HPV-positive women reported that they had no history of oral sex exposure compared to oral HPV-negative women (4/12, 33% vs. 7/98, 8%). The prevalence of cervical HPV infection did not vary between heterosexuals and bisexuals (35.7% (25/70) vs. 35.5% (11/31), p-value 0.411) and for all other women the cervical HPV prevalence was significantly lower (11.1%, 1/9). Our study suggests that smoking and sexual behavior involving males rather than female partners may be possible predictors of oral HPV infection in women. Further studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm these findings. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Hashim D.,Institute of Translational Epidemiology | Hashim D.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Boffetta P.,Institute of Translational Epidemiology | La Vecchia C.,University of Milan | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2016

Background: A decrease in cancer mortality has been reported in the United States, Europe, and other high-income regions during the last two decades. Whether similar trends apply to low-to-middle income countries-and globally-is unclear. Design: The aim of this descriptive study is to compare cancer mortality in all countries with high- or intermediate-quality data on death certificates according to the World Health Organization (WHO) mortality database for the years 2000 through 2010. We included 60 countries in the analysis and calculated age-adjusted mortality rates for all cancer combined and for the commonest cancers worldwide: lung, stomach, breast, colorectal, uterine, and prostate. Results: A decrease in overall cancer mortality rate of ~1% per year was observed in higher and lower income regions and in both sexes. In 2010, 696 000 cancer deaths were avoided on a global scale compared with 2000 rates (426 000 in men, 271 000 in women). However, the mortality of liver cancer in both sexes and lung cancer in females increased in many countries'. Conclusions: The individual risk of dying from cancer decreased in all countries with reliable data. This decrease was chiefly due to favorable trends in the commonest specific cancers. Liver cancer in both sexes and lung cancer in women, which show increasing mortality rates, constitute a priority for prevention and further research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology.

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