Institute of Environmental science

Kraków, Poland

Institute of Environmental science

Kraków, Poland
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PubMed | Federal University of Goais, Institute of Environmental science, Federal University of Säo João del Rei, Federal University of São Carlos and Federal University of Espirito Santo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Chemistry & biodiversity | Year: 2016

A phytochemical study of Pavonia multiflora A. St-Hil. (Malvaceae) led to the isolation through chromatographic techniques of 10 secondary metabolites: vanillic acid (1), ferulic acid (2), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), p-coumaric acid (4), loliolide (5), vomifoliol (6), 4,5-dihydroblumenol A (7), 3-oxo--ionol (9), blumenol C (10), and taraxerol 4-methoxybenzoate (8), the latter being a novel metabolite. Their structures were identified by (1) H- and (13) C-NMR, using one- and two-dimensional techniques, and X-ray crystallography. In this work, we report the effect of compounds 5 and 8 on several photosynthetic activities in an attempt to search for new compounds as potential herbicide agents that affect photosynthesis. Both compounds inhibited the electron flow from H2 O to methyl viologen; therefore, they act as Hill reaction inhibitors. Using polarographic techniques and studies of the fluorescence of chlorophyll a, the interaction sites of these compounds were located at photosystem II.

PubMed | Federal University of Goais, Institute of Environmental science, Federal University of Säo João del Rei, Federal University of São Carlos and Federal University of Espirito Santo
Type: | Journal: Chemistry & biodiversity | Year: 2016

A phytochemical study of Pavonia multiflora A. St.-Hil. (Malvaceae) led to the isolation through chromatographic techniques of ten secondary metabolites: vanillic acid (1), ferulic acid (2), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), p-coumaric acid (4), loliolide (5), vomifoliol (6), 4,5-dihydroblumenol A (7), 3-oxo--ionol (9), blumenol C (10), and taraxerol 4-methoxybenzoate (8), the latter being a novel metabolite. Their structures were identified by

Qi C.,Hefei University of Technology | Wu F.,Chinese Academy of Science | Wu F.,Institute of Environmental science | Deng Q.,Chinese Academy of Science | And 5 more authors.
Microchemical Journal | Year: 2011

Antimony (Sb) distribution and accumulation in plants in Xikuangshan Sb deposit area, the only one super-large Sb deposit in the world, Hunan, China were investigated. Results show that soils were severely polluted with the average Sb concentrations up to 5949.20mg kg-1. Sb widely occurred in 34 plants with various concentrations ranging from 3.92mg kg-1 to 143.69mg kg-1, Equisetaceae family has the highest concentration (98.23mg kg-1) while Dryopteridacea family has the lowest one (6.43mg kg-1). H. ramosissima species of Equisetaceae family had the highest Sb average concentration of 98.23mg kg-1 and P. vittata species of Pteridaceae family showed advantage of accumulating Sb from the contaminated environment (Biological Accumulation Coefficient, BAC=0.08). Almost all species enriched Sb in their upground part such as shoot, leaf and flower (Biological Transfer Coefficient, BTC>1), which may attribute to the high acropetal coefficient and Sb transformation from the atmosphere to the plants. P. phaseoloides and D. indicum showed predominantly accumulation of Sb in the upground part with BTC of 6.65 and 5.47, respectively.From the low bioavailable fraction in soils and weak relationship between total soil concentrations in soils and plants, it seems that the Sb bioavailability was limited and varied with different soil sites as well as plant species. Those observations would be significant to the phytoaccumulation and phytoremediation of plants and ecological and environmental risk assessment in Sb contaminated areas. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Wen Y.,Institute of Environmental science | Chen H.,Institute of Environmental science | Shen C.,Institute of Environmental science | Zhao M.,Zhejiang University | Liu W.,Zhejiang University of Technology
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be the key players in cell toxicity. However, cross talk between the enantioselective toxicity of pesticides, heavy metals, and ROS is poorly understood. To decipher the puzzle, the effects of copper (Cu) on the enantioselective ecotoxicity of the chiral pesticide dichlorprop (DCPP) to Scenedesmus obliquus were investigated. The results showed that the presence of DCPP and Cu, both individually and in combination, caused a sudden increase of ROS. This in turn stimulated the response of antioxidant defenses, impaired subcellular structure and physiological function, and finally resulted in cell growth inhibition. In the absence of Cu, ROS production after exposure to the herbicidally active (R)-enantiomer was higher than that of the (S)-enantiomer, suggesting a preference for an (R)-enantiomer-induced production of ROS. When DCPP and Cu were both added to algae simultaneously, (R)-DCPP preferentially induced production of ROS was observed. However, the enantioselective induced production of ROS was reversed when DCPP was mixed with Cu for 24 h prior to addition to the algae solution. It was also found that the generation of ROS, antioxidant response, and growth inhibition rate in Scenedesmus obliquus were all (R)-enantiomer preferentially induced. These findings implied that ROS play a primary role in chemical contaminant toxicity, and interactions between contaminants can tune the enantioselectivity of chiral herbicides, which should be considered in future risk assessment. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Bauer H.,Institute of Environmental science | De Iongh H.,Institute of Environmental science | Sogbohossou E.,University Abomey Calavi
Mammalia | Year: 2010

The lion (Panthera leo) is most threatened in West and Central Africa; livestock encroachment and indiscriminate killing of lions are the main threats. Human-lion conflict mitigation is therefore key to persistence. Several experiments were carried out in the region to assess and mitigate human-lion conflict. In Pendjari National Park in Benin, enclosures of clay instead of the usual thorny branches reduced depredation figures by half. Around the Niger side of 'W' National Park, depredation was estimated at US$138 per household per year and occurred mostly while grazing; people identified improved herding as the most appropriate measure. A livestock corridor through a chain of protected areas has helped reduce conflict in Benoue National Park, Cameroon. Close monitoring and enclosure improvements reduced depredation from 9 to 0 attacks in enclosures and from 60 to 18 on the pastures of six villages around Waza National Park, Cameroon. Cases in Chad and Guinea identified yet other mitigation measures, including the use of dogs, sensitisation over rural radio and using relevant Sourats from the Koran; data on effectiveness are lacking, however. These projects illustrate a varied suite of mitigation options and demonstrate that mitigation can be effective if the method is judiciously chosen and adapted to local circumstances. © 2010 by Walter de Gruyter - Berlin - New York.

D'Alessandro M.,University of Neuchatel | Erb M.,University of Neuchatel | Erb M.,Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology | Ton J.,University of Sheffield | And 5 more authors.
Plant, Cell and Environment | Year: 2014

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by soil microorganisms influence plant growth and pathogen resistance. Yet, very little is known about their influence on herbivores and higher trophic levels. We studied the origin and role of a major bacterial VOC, 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), on plant growth, pathogen and herbivore resistance, and the attraction of natural enemies in maize. One of the major contributors to 2,3-BD in the headspace of soil-grown maize seedlings was identified as Enterobacter aerogenes, an endophytic bacterium that colonizes the plants. The production of 2,3-BD by E.aerogenes rendered maize plants more resistant against the Northern corn leaf blight fungus Setosphaeria turcica. On the contrary, E.aerogenes-inoculated plants were less resistant against the caterpillar Spodoptera littoralis. The effect of 2,3-BD on the attraction of the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris was more variable: 2,3-BD application to the headspace of the plants had no effect on the parasitoids, but application to the soil increased parasitoid attraction. Furthermore, inoculation of seeds with E.aerogenes decreased plant attractiveness, whereas inoculation of soil with a total extract of soil microbes increased parasitoid attraction, suggesting that the effect of 2,3-BD on the parasitoid is indirect and depends on the composition of the microbial community. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Van Der Giesen C.,Institute of Environmental science | Kleijn R.,Institute of Environmental science | Kramer G.J.,Institute of Environmental science | Kramer G.J.,Royal Dutch Shell
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Within the context of carbon dioxide (CO2) utilization there is an increasing interest in using CO2 as a resource to produce sustainable liquid hydrocarbon fuels. When these fuels are produced by solely using solar energy they are labeled as solar fuels. In the recent discourse on solar fuels intuitive arguments are used to support the prospects of these fuels. This paper takes a quantitative approach to investigate some of the claims made in this discussion. We analyze the life cycle performance of various classes of solar fuel processes using different primary energy and CO 2 sources. We compare their efficacy with respect to carbon mitigation with ubiquitous fossil-based fuels and conclude that producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels starting from CO2 by using existing technologies requires much more energy than existing fuels. An improvement in life cycle CO2 emissions is only found when solar energy and atmospheric CO 2 are used. Producing fuels from CO2 is a very long-term niche at best, not the panacea suggested in the recent public discourse. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Prokop Z.M.,Institute of Environmental science | Les J.E.,Institute of Environmental science | Banas P.K.,Institute of Environmental science | Koteja P.,Institute of Environmental science | Radwan J.,Institute of Environmental science
Evolutionary Ecology | Year: 2010

The genic capture hypothesis implies that the expression of sexual ornaments largely depends on genes affecting resource acquisition and use. The ornaments should thus show high degree of directional dominance typical of life-history traits, and consequently, they should be severely affected by inbreeding. Here we investigated the effect of inbreeding on a sexual ornament (male eyespan) in stalk-eyed fly, Teleopsis dalmanni. For comparison, we also measured inbreeding depression in non-sexual morphological traits: female eyespan as well as wing and thorax lengths in both sexes. Both eyespan, and other morphological traits we measured, showed significant inbreeding depression. In accord with predictions of genic capture hypothesis, male eyespan did decrease under inbreeding significantly more than female eyespan. However, the decline in male eyespan was fully explained by overall decline in body length. Moreover, the magnitude of inbreeding depression in male eyespan was considerably lower than that typically observed for life-histories; in fact, it fitted within the range typically characterizing morphological traits. We therefore conclude that our results provide weak support for genic capture hypothesis. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Xie F.,Jinan University | Gu J.-G.,Jinan University | Lin Z.-W.,Institute of Environmental Science
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2014

A new assessment method based on principal component analysis(PCA) and entropy weight for ecosystem health was applied to Wanning Reservoir, Hainan Island, China to investigate whether the new method could solve the overlap in weighting which existed in the traditional entropy weight-based method for ecosystem health. The results showed that, the ecosystem health status of Wanning Reservoir showed an improvement trend overall from 2010 to 2012; the means of ecosystem health comprehensive index(EHCI) in each year were 0.534, 0.617, 0.634 for 2010, 2011 and 2012 respectively, and the ecosystem health status was III(medium), II(good), and II(good), respectively. In addition, the ecosystem health status of the reservoir displayed a weak seasonal variation. The variation of EHCI became smaller recently, showing that Wanning Reservoir tended to be relatively stable. Comparison of the weight of indices in the new and the traditional methods indicated that, the cumulative weight of the four indices(i. e., DO, COD, BOD5 and NH4 +-N) had a stronger correlation of 0. 382 for the traditional one than that(0.178) for the new method. It suggested the application of PCA with entropy could avoid the overlap in weighting effectively. In addition, the correlation analysis between the trophic status index and EHCI showed significant negative correlation(P<0.05), indicating that the new method based on PCA with entropy weight could improve not only the assignment of weighting but also the accuracy of the results. The new method here is suitable for evaluating ecosystem health of the reservoir.

PubMed | Adam Mickiewicz University, Institute of Environmental science and Jagiellonian University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2016

This study presents results of research on isolation new bacteria strain Achromobacter xylosoxidans able to effect on the structure of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polymer resistant to degradation in environment. New strain of A. xylosoxidans PE-1 was isolated from the soil and identified by analysis of the 16S ribosome subunit coding sequences. The substance to be degraded was HDPE in the form of thin foil films. The foil samples were analyzed with Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) as well as scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the results revealed degradation of chemical structure of HDPE. About 9% loss of weight was also detected as a result of A. xylosoxidans PE-1 effect on HDPE foil. On the basis of comparative spectral analysis of the raw material before the bacteria treatment and the spectrum from a spectra database, it was assumed that the HDPE was the only source of carbon and energy for the microorganisms. No fillers or other additives used in the plastic processing were observed in HDPE before experiments. This is the first communication showing that A. xylosoxidans is able to modify chemical structure of HDPE, what was observed both on FTIR, in mass reduction of HDPE and SEM analysis. We also observed quite good growth of the bacteria also when the HDPE was the sole carbon source in the medium. These results prove that A. xylosoxidans is an organism worth applying in future HDPE biodegradation studies.

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