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Stamps A.E.,Institute of Environmental Quality
Environment and Behavior | Year: 2012

This article reports 10 findings from five experiments, with 124 participants and 96 environments, on how atmospheric permeability mediates perceived enclosure. Enclosure is important because it influences safety, and safety may be dependent on atmospheric permeability. Atmospheric permeability was expressed as clear air or fog. Overall, fog made places seem more open. Numerical guidance is provided to assist future work in this line of inquiry. © The Author(s) 2012. Source


Stamps III A.E.,Institute of Environmental Quality
Environment and Behavior | Year: 2013

This article reports seven new, original findings, based on 4 experiments, 56 environmental scenes, and 71 participants, on how the factors of area over which one could walk (boundary height, boundary porosity, and boundary proximity) influence perceived spaciousness or enclosure. Perceived spaciousness was most strongly related by the area over which one could walk. Enclosure was most strongly related to boundary height. Proximate boundaries had stronger effects on perceived enclosure than did distal boundaries. Results were highly reproducible over vastly different environmental venues, indicating that the research protocols worked very well. © The Author(s) 2012. Source


Stamps A.E.,Institute of Environmental Quality
Environment and Behavior | Year: 2010

This article suggests that the ranges through which people can see through or move through environments are extremely important.The label corresponding to this theory is permeability theory. Eight hypotheses are generated from permeability theory using two responses (perceived enclosure and perceived spaciousness) and four properties of the physical environment (permeability of boundary, amount of light, horizontal area within a boundary, and boundary depth). Empirical data from 4 experiments, 54 environments, and 130 participants indicate that permeability theory correctly predicted 6 a priori hypotheses and also correctly predicted that the remaining 2 hypotheses would have effect sizes too small to detect. The main determinants of judged enclosure or spaciousness are visual permeability of the boundary, amount of light, and horizontal area. Numerical guidance is provided to assist future research. © 2010 SAGE Publications. Source


Stamps III A.E.,Institute of Environmental Quality
Environment and Behavior | Year: 2011

This article reports findings from three experiments, covering 46 environments and 66 participants, on how strongly four properties of the physical environment influence perceived spaciousness.The properties were horizontal area, boundary height, elongation, and color. Ten original findings were reported. Overall, horizontal area had the strongest effect on perceived spaciousness (r =. 60; more floor area increases perceived spaciousness), followed by height (r = -.22; lower boundaries increase perceived spaciousness). The effect of color on perceived spaciousness, when amount of light is controlled, was much smaller (r =. 14). Findings for elongation were different for concave and convex spaces (r's of -.22 and +.26). Quantitative syntheses of the current work with previous work are presented, as is numerical guidance for cost-effective future work. © 2011 SAGE Publications. Source


Stamps III A.E.,Institute of Environmental Quality
Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design | Year: 2010

This paper addresses the question of how to create environments that people will want to explore. Four environmental properties (slines, entropy, floor area, and shape) were tested for exploration time in three experiments that included thirty-eight virtual environments and sixty participants. Slines had the strongest effect on exploration time (r = 0.36), followed by entropy (r = 0.34). Floor area and shape had much smaller effects on exploration time (r = 0.10 and r = 0.09, respectively). Possibilities for future research are discussed. © 2010 Pion Ltd and its Licensors. Source

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