Institute of Environmental Protection National Research Institute

Protection, Poland

Institute of Environmental Protection National Research Institute

Protection, Poland
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Chlebowska-Stys A.,Wroclaw University of Technology | Sowka I.,Wroclaw University of Technology | Kobus D.,Institute of Environmental Protection National Research Institute | Pachurka L.,Wroclaw University of Technology
E3S Web of Conferences | Year: 2017

Particulate matter is generated in many natural and anthropogenic processes and, therefore, taking part in chemical reactions and physical processes in the atmosphere could affect human health, climate, and natural environment. The dust, after emission to the atmosphere, remains there in a floating state to form an atmospheric aerosol with different properties - depending on the morphology, the fraction, shape, surface, and chemical composition of the particles. The chemical composition of particulate matter is heterogeneous and depends on the type of emission sources and the time of residence in the atmosphere. The contribution of individual types of sources in the total dust emission is different in European countries. The aim of the study was to analyze the concentrations of PM10 at urban background and traffic stations in the chosen 17 European cities. For this purpose, the data from the database of the European Environment Agency and Chief Inspectorate of Environmental Protection was used. The annual average concentrations of 10 and daily average concentrations of PM10 in 2014 will be presented to confirm that in the European cities there is a problem about high 10 concentrations, especially in Poland and other eastern countries. In the case of daily average 10 concentration, the highest concentrations of pollutants in the winter season suggests that for the low air quality in these cities the phenomenon of so- called low-stack-emissions from the municipal sector is responsible. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences,2017.


Zasina D.,Institute of Environmental Protection National Research Institute | Zasina D.,Warsaw University of Technology | Zawadzki J.,Warsaw University of Technology
Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association | Year: 2017

The aim of this study is improving currently applied methodology for spatial disaggregation, as well as mapping air emission inventories by taking into account the auxiliary spatial data on population density. District heating infrastructure occurring in more populated areas changes distinctly the spatial distribution of estimated air emission; however, it does not change the initial estimate. That means the total, disaggregated value is constant. Considered sources of domestic combustion are located in the central part of the Silesian Metropolis, in the southern part of Poland. A large part of this area is strongly urbanized and supplied with heat (hot water) from the district heating system. Data on population density help to determine the area within which the dwellers use heat energy and hot water supplied by the heating infrastructure, apart from heating with small domestic boilers and stoves. This causes the domestic combustion’s emission impact within the distinguished area to be significantly lower in comparison to the official guidelines on air emission inventories. The important differences in spatial air emissions distributions calculated using a top-down approach are found for strongly urbanized areas supplied partly with heat and hot water from the district heating network. This fact should be taken into account when preparing detailed, high-resolution emission inventories for air regional and local quality modeling. Implications: The spatial issues connected with elaboration of the high-resolution emission inventories are presented for the example of the populated area of the Silesian Metropolis (Poland). Spatial distribution of the population density is used to determine the area supplied with heat and hot water from the district heating system. It changes distinctly the spatial distribution of the air emission from small residential combustion sources. © 2017 A&WMA


Ciecierska H.,University of Warmia and Mazury | Kolada A.,Institute of Environmental Protection National Research Institute
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2014

The paper introduces the Ecological State Macrophyte Index (ESMI), a method compliant with the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) for assessing the ecological status of lakes based on macrophytes. A description of the elaboration of macrophyte metrics, relevant reference conditions and a classification system for two types of high-alkalinity lowland lakes (stratified and polymictic), and a customised field survey procedure based on belt transects are presented. The ESMI evaluates two aspects of macrophyte community: taxonomic composition (index of evenness J) and abundance (colonisation index Z), which are combined into one multimetric. ESMI values range from 0 to 1, where 1 denotes pristine conditions and 0, highly degraded habitats. The high/good class boundary (H/G) was set at the first quartile of ESMI values of reference lakes. For the other classes, boundaries were set by dividing the range of ESMI values between the H/G boundary and the minimum value recorded in the dataset in a logarithmic scale into four. The ESMI correlated best with water transparency (Pearson's R=0.62 in stratified lakes and 0.79 in polymictic ones), whereas the correlations with phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations were somewhat weaker (R=-0.48 to -0.57). Based on the results of international intercalibration, the original class boundaries were modified (merged for stratified and polymictic lakes, the good/moderate boundary tightened to approximately 20 %), to make ESMI-based assessment results comparable with the outcomes of other European methods. © 2014 The Author(s).


Ostrowska A.,Institute of Environmental Protection National Research Institute | Porebska G.,Institute of Environmental Protection National Research Institute
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2012

We analyzed relations between the content of total organic carbon (TOC) and the content of soil organic matter (SOM) in 47 soil profiles dug out in dry coniferous forests, fresh coniferous forests, and mixed deciduous-coniferous forests. Soils in the analyzed sites are derived from sands. In each soil horizon, bulk density (BD), pH, soil texture, and TOC and SOM were determined. Correlation between the content of TOC and SOM was significant in all layers (p<0.05), with correlation coefficients varying from 0.98 in the O horizon to 0.45 in the C horizon. The regression coefficient of linear equations for the SOM-to-TOC conversion decreased with soil depth. In the horizons occurring to a depth of ca. 20 cm (O, A, E), the regression coefficient for TOC as a predictor of SOM is 1.985, and for SOM as a predictor of TOC is 0.498, when R2 equals 0.989. In the B horizons, which form a layer to the depth of 30-50 cm, these coefficients amounted to 1.912 and 0.459, respectively. In the deeper layers, the relationship between TOC and SOM seems to be less evident. It was established that TOC determined is consistent with TOC calculated on the basis of the SOM-to-TOC conversion.


Kolada A.,Institute of Environmental Protection National Research Institute | Ciecierska H.,University of Warmia and Mazury | Ruszczynska J.,University of Warmia and Mazury | Dynowski P.,University of Warmia and Mazury
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2013

According to the Water Framework Directive, the results of the ecological status assessment should be accompanied with estimates of the level of confidence and precision of the determination. The Polish macrophyte-based method for lake assessment (Ecological State Macrophyte Index, ESMI) was tested for its uncertainty. The data from 12 lakes surveyed using four modifications of the sampling procedure, different numbers of transects and by two or three independent surveyors were analysed and the risk of misclassification was estimated. The choice of the sampling technique had no effect on abundance parameters (Cmax and %cover), but it affected significantly the taxonomic composition indices (H and J′). It did not influence, however, the final assessment result, since in all the methods used, the ESMI values were comparable and showed no significant differences of means. Although the mean ESMI values were statistically indifferent and gave the same assessment result irrespective of the number of transects surveyed, the lower the number of transects, the higher the SD value and the more uncertain the assessment result. The risk of misclassification of the 12 lakes varied from 0.5% to over 40% depending on the sampling standard deviation value and the proximity of the index observed value to the class boundary. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Ochocka A.,Institute of Environmental Protection National Research Institute | Pasztaleniec A.,Institute of Environmental Protection National Research Institute
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2016

Herein, we report the response of indices based on phytoplankton and zooplankton and their combination to different nutrient concentrations in lakes. The study was carried out in ten lakes in northeastern Poland. Integrated samples were collected from the epilimnion during the summer of 2012–2013. Secchi disk visibility (SD), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and chlorophyll a were used as proxies for eutrophication. We calculated 16 plankton indices: two phytoplankton indices, six crustacean indices, five rotiferan indices, two zooplankton diversity indices, and one combined phytoplankton and zooplankton index. Among them, nine indices with the strongest correlations with TP were selected: percentage share of Crustacean species indicative of high trophy in the indicative group’s numbers (IHTCRU), percentage share of Rotifera species indicative of high trophy in the indicative group’s numbers IHTROT, Crustacean ratio of biomass to numbers B/NCRU, phytoplankton trophic index (TITP+TN), Margalef’s index, percentage share of cyclopoid biomass in total biomass of Crustacea (CB), Rotifera numbers (NROT), biomass of Cyclopoida (BCY), and ratio of the cyclopoid biomass to the biomass of Cladocera (CY/CL). The sensitivity of the normalized values of these indices to proxies of eutrophication was tested. IHTCRU, IHTROT, and B/NCRU were the most sensitive and gave the strongest responses at lower TP concentrations (<35 μg/L). The phytoplankton trophic index, TITP+TN, together with the zooplankton-based Margalef’s index and CB were very sensitive in both low (<35 μg/L) and high (>60 μg/L) TP conditions. On the other hand, NROT, BCY, and CY/CL were slightly sensitive at low TP concentrations while their reaction was notable at high TP concentrations. A similar pattern of response was observed for TN concentration and SD visibility. © 2016, The Author(s).


Pasztaleniec A.,Institute of Environmental Protection National Research Institute | Poniewozik M.,Catholic University of Lublin
Biologia (Poland) | Year: 2013

In the present study we focused on the impact of macrophyte cover (composed mainly of the Lemna genus) on phytoplankton taxonomic and functional diversity. Some important environmental parameters, mainly light (KdPAR), and the chemical conditions (pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonium, soluble and total forms of phosphorus) were closely related to the pleustophyte cover. Among them, the key factor in the phytoplankton ecology of the studied oxbow lakes was the dense macrophyte cover which strongly reduced the illumination of water. Neither differences in the mean nutrient concentrations between the lakes with FFP (Free Floating Plants) absence and those with FFP dominance nor significant relationships between nutrients and the phytoplankton structure were observed. The species composition of phytoplankton and the functional (FG) and morpho-functional (MFG) groups reflected the differences between the habitats connected with hydromacrophytes. The free-floating macrophyte cover favours mixotrophic and heterotrophic species, mainly Euglenophyta (coda W1 and W2) and chrysophytes (codon Ws) as well as shade-adapted cyanobacteria with the high tolerance of the low oxygen content (codon K). In lakes with FFP absence - taxa from Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyceae (associations X1, J, and D), or filamentous cyanobacteria (codon S1) dominated the phytoplankton. MFG were less related to the oxbow type and exhibited greater similarity between lakes independently of the presence or absence of FFP. Only unicellular Cyanoprokaryota which created MFG 4 and colonial chroococcales (MFG 5b and 5c) reached a greater percentage share, especially in oxbow lakes with FFP dominance. © 2013 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.


Kolada A.,Institute of Environmental Protection National Research Institute
Aquatic Botany | Year: 2016

Macrophyte-based methods for lake ecological status assessment universally include hydrophytes. Emergent plants (helophytes) are presumed to respond more directly to soil characteristics, wind exposure or shoreline management, hence are usually not considered as reliable indicators of water nutrient enrichment. The aims of the study were to explore the potential role of helophytes as eutrophication indicators and to test whether including or excluding emergent vegetation affects the indicator value of the Ecological State Macrophyte Index (ESMI) used in lake monitoring in Poland. Data on macrophyte composition and abundance (76 hydrophyte and 48 helophyte communities) and water quality from 490 Polish lowland lakes were analysed. Based on the frequency distribution and non-metric multi-dimensional scaling ordination, helophyte communities that exhibited clear trends of occurrence and abundance along the eutrophication gradient and enabled differentiation between lakes in diverse ecological conditions were identified. The effect of emergent vegetation on assessment metric diagnostic capacity was tested using modified index ESMI calculated with helophytes being included (CompESMITOT) and excluded (CompESMIHYDR) by comparing correlations between both metrics and eutrophication indicators (trophic state indices). Compared to CompESMITOT, CompESMIHYDR correlated slightly, though significantly weaker with most of the water quality indicators, and only for TSITP the difference in metric responses was statistically non-significant. The added diagnostic value of including emergent vegetation was between 0.04 and 0.08 of r2 increase and this benefit was more pronounced in more degraded lakes. The presented results demonstrated that emergent vegetation provides reliable information on ecosystem ecological conditions and can support assessment of the ecological status of lakes under eutrophication pressure. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Siwiec E.,Institute of Environmental Protection National Research Institute
Disaster Prevention and Management | Year: 2015

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present problems related to the assessment of losses and expenditures caused by weather and climate-related events in Poland. Design/methodology/approach – The data were collected by the direct questionnaire method from selected national and regional/local administration units. Findings – The direct losses in 2001-2011 were estimated at more than PLN56 billion. The greatest losses were estimated in agriculture and infrastructure. The total amount of losses were estimated at PLN90 billion. In 2001-2011, more than PLN45 billion was spent in Poland on recovery and prevention of the impacts of extreme events, with a large part of it consisting of damages and benefits paid out by insurance companies. Research limitations/implications – Given the limitations related to the method for collecting information, the results may be underestimated. It is well-advised to consider information on such a type of uncertainty in the course of the future research. Practical implications – The results are of large importance for the building of public awareness and the making of political and investment-related decisions. Originality/value – The estimates given in the paper are the first presentation of losses and expenditures caused by all the extreme events in the Polish territory which has been prepared on the basis of so many official information sources. The determination of “bottlenecks” related to the existing method for collecting information is a first step toward its improvement. © 2015, Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Kolada A.,Institute of Environmental Protection National Research Institute | Kutyla S.,Institute of Environmental Protection National Research Institute
Biological Invasions | Year: 2016

Non-indigenous invasive aquatic plants affect macrophyte community composition, structure and abundance, and are recognised as one of the major causes of biodiversity loss in aquatic ecosystem. Their mass development poses serious ecological, sociological and economical threats in many countries. We investigated biological, physicochemical, hydromorphological and geographical data from 447 Polish lowland lakes to recognise the phenomenon of invasive macrophyte species and to identify environmental factors that determine their occurrence and abundance. We focused on Elodea canadensis (EC) as the most common and widespread alien hydrophyte in Poland. Phytocoenoses of EC were present in 40 % of analysed lakes. The area occupied by EC ranged from 2.3 to 5.5 % of the total vegetated area per year, on average, with a maximum of 37.8 %. A comparison between two sub-periods (2005–2009 and 2010–2013) revealed a lack of increase in EC mean abundance within the analysed period. Likewise, no evidence of EC effects on the native flora, its richness and diversity and no effects on the ecological status of the lakes were found. In the analysed period, EC did not demonstrate invasive character in Polish lakes. The habitat preference of EC was biased towards larger and deeper lakes located at higher altitudes, with longer water retention times, better water quality and better ecological status based on macrophytes compared with non-invaded lakes. We found altitude and water quality as the main determinants of EC occurrence within the sampled area. We suggest that both climate warming and accelerated eutrophication may contribute to reducing EC spread in Europe observed during recent decades. © 2016 The Author(s)

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