Wowkonowicz P.,Institute of Environmental Protection |
Kijenska M.,Institute of Environmental Protection
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017
Phthalate diesters (PAEs) are used as plasticizer additives to polymer chains to make the material more flexible and malleable. PAEs are bonded physically, not chemically, to the polymeric matrix and can migrate to and leach from the product surface, posing a serious danger to the environment and human health. There have been a number of studies on PAE concentrations in landfill leachate conducted in the EU and around the world, though few in Poland. In the present study, the leachate of five municipal landfills was analyzed for the presence of PAEs. Raw leachate was sampled four times over the period of one year in 2015/16. It was the first large study on this subject in Poland. PAEs were detected in the leachate samples on all of the landfills, thereby indicating that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The following PAEs were detected in at least one sample: Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Diethyl phthalate (DEP), Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), Di-isobutylphthalate (DIBP). Out of all ten PAEs, DEHP was the most predominant, with concentrations up to 73.9 μg/L. DEHP was present in 65% of analyzed samples (in 100% of samples in spring, 80% in winter, and 40% in summer and autumn). In only 25% of all samples DEHP was below the acceptable UE limit for surface water (1.3 μg/L), while 75% was from 1.7 to 56 times higher than that value. On the two largest landfills DEHP concentrations were observed during samples from all four seasons, including on a landfill which has been remediated and closed for the last 5 years. © 2017 Wowkonowicz, Kijeńska. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Kargulewicz I.,Institute of Environmental Protection
Archives of Foundry Engineering | Year: 2017
This article presents data on the anthropogenic air emissions of selected substances (CO2, SO2, total suspended particles (TSP), dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), Pb and Cd) subject to reporting under the Climate Convention (UNFCCC) or the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (UNECE CLRTAP). It also presents the national emissions of these substances in 2014 by the major source categories and defines the share of metal production in these emissions. Analysis is based on national emission inventory reports. Most important source of air emission in case of CO2 and SO2 is 1.A.1 Energy industries category. TSP and PCDD/F are emitted mainly from fuel combustion in small sources (i.a. households). Emission of heavy metals (Pb and Cd) is connected mostly with 1.A.2. Manufacturing industries and construction category. Metallurgy is significant source of emission only for lead and cadmium from among all considered substances. The shares of particular sectors in the national emissions of given pollutants are important, in view of the possible reduction measures and the determination in which industries they could bring about tangible results. © 2017 by I. Kargulewicz.
Konieczny K.,Silesian University of Technology |
Kwiecinska A.,Silesian University of Technology |
Gworek B.,Institute of Environmental Protection
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2011
Huge amount of slurry produced in high-density livestock farming needs proper management and utilization methods. The integrated system of centrifugation/two-step ultrafiltration/nanofiltration was used to recover water from pig slurry. PVDF UF (100 and 50 kDa), PES UF (10 and 5 kDa) and composite hydrophilic NF membranes (0.2 kDa) were used. System efficiency was validated according to final product quality and membranes capacity. The influence of membrane fouling on their performance and properties was also investigated. The study showed that among all discussed system configurations centrifugation-UF50- UF5-NF0.2 was the most effective. Thirty-three percentage of initial crude slurry volume was obtained as the final permeate. Strong influence of membranes fouling on system capacity was observed for UF, while for NF it had an impact on membranes properties. The finally obtained product was suitable to be reused as a sanitary safe industrial water e.g. for washing of animals and farmhouses. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Agnieszka J.,Institute of Environmental Protection |
Agnieszka J.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences |
Barbara G.,Institute of Environmental Protection |
Barbara G.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2012
The presented study was focused on soils developed from fluvioglacial sands from the Puszcza Borecka forest complex. The mobility of chromium, nickel and vanadium was evaluated with regard to litho- and pedogenic factors. The aim of the study was to determine with which soil constituents fractions of heavy metals are bound with particular attention drawn on the mobile fractions (F1. +. F2). Heavy metal fractions in the soils were determined using the sequential extraction method of Tessier et al. The purpose of sequential extraction methods to soil samples provides relevant information about possible toxicity when they are discharged into the soil environment. Chromium, nickel, and vanadium occurred predominantly in the fraction bound with iron and manganese oxides and in the residual fraction, thus showed low mobility. With regard to mobility, the elements studied can be arranged as follows: V. <. Cr. <. Ni. The content of the mobile fractions depended on the soil texture. The influence of the rusting process on the distribution of the bioavailable fractions was observed in the soil profiles. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Pasztaleniec A.,Institute of Environmental Protection |
Poniewozik M.,Catholic University of Lublin
Limnologica | Year: 2010
The EU Water Framework Directive includes phytoplankton as one of the four biological elements to be used in the assessment of the ecological status of surface waters. In this work we establish the ecological status of four shallow lakes in the Polesie Region of Eastern Poland on the basis of phytoplankton and physicochemical data from the lake water. A number of recently developed phytoplankton indices, including the Carlson Index, Q index and German PSI were compared. Cyanoprokaryota, chlorophytes and dinophytes dominated in Lakes Głbokie and Sumin, while in the Lakes Rotcze and Maśluchowskie the biggest share belonged to Chlorophyta. On the basis of the Carlson Index, Lake Głbokie had the highest trophic score, while the lowest score was for Lake Rotcze. A similar result was also found with the Q index which indicated a good ecological state for Lake Rotcze (Q = 3.5), a bad state for Lake Głbokie (Q = 0.9), a poor status for Lake Sumin (Q = 1.2) and a moderate status for Lake Maśluchowskie (Q = 2.9). Similar results were obtained with the use of the German PSI which classified Lake Głbokie as bad status (PSI = 4.7) and Lake Rotcze as good (PSI = 2), although differences between the 2 indices appeared between the moderate and poor status lakes (respectively in the case of Lake Sumin - PSI = 2.6 and Lake Maśluchowskie - PSI = 4.4). © 2009 Elsevier GmbH.
Napiorkowska-Krzebietke A.,Stanislaw Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute |
Pasztaleniec A.,Institute of Environmental Protection |
Hutorowicz A.,Stanislaw Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute
Journal of Elementology | Year: 2012
A new phytoplankton-based method (the Phytoplankton Metric for Polish Lakes - PMPL) for the ecological status assessment of lakes has been developed in Poland. This method has not been validated and tested on independent data, hence the aim of the study was to check the applicability of this method and the sensitivity of different phytoplankton metrics along pressure gradient. Phytoplankton data were collected from 33 Polish lowland lakes (20 stratified, 13 non-stratified), during the growth season in the period from 2005 to 2009. The biomass of phytoplankton was calculated from cell volume measurements and chlorophyll a concentration was determined spectrophotometrically by the alcohol method. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations were determined by standard methods (PN-EN ISO 6878:2006p.7 and PN-EN 25663:2001, respectively) and water transparency was measured using a Secchi disk. For comparability, an ecological status was determined according to three phytoplankton-based methods: Polish, German and Hungarian. Polish metrics showed a strong correlation with the other metrics (German, Hungarian), which are broadly and successfully used for assessment in Europe. However, a statistically significant correlation was found between all the metric values and the main parameters: total phosphorus, total nitrogen and Secchi disk visibility. The metrics based on quantitative phytoplankton features were more sensitive to the growth of eutrophication than others, based on indicator taxa. Total phosphorus demonstrated a stronger relationship with the tested metrics than total nitro-gen. Phytoplankton metrics reacted quite well to pressure gradients because of the decreasing tendency of metric values along the TP and TN gradient and an increasing tendency along the Secchi disk visibility gradient. The multimetric PMPL may be recommended as useful for the assessment of the ecological status of Polish lakes.
Porebska G.,Institute of Environmental Protection |
Ostrowska A.,Institute of Environmental Protection
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2013
We presented the results of study on carbon C stock in forest soils of coniferous and mixed deciduousconiferous habitats in Poland. The C stock was calculated for each soil horizon and for the layer to a depth of 1 m. We compared the results of studies conducted today with 30 years ago and assessed changes in C accumulation in soils during that period of time. The C stock in the compared habitats did not increase within 30 years, even though the age of the tree stands increased from 55 to 85 years.
Pasztaleniec A.,Institute of Environmental Protection
International Review of Hydrobiology | Year: 2016
The use of phytoplankton as a tool to assess the status of ecosystems in monitoring programmes should consider its taxonomic composition [Water Framework Directive-WFD, 2000/60/EC]. One of the approaches towards phytoplankton composition assessment in relation to eutrophication process is the use of phytoplankton trophic indices based on taxa preferences along a trophic gradient. Monitoring data on phytoplankton (biomass, taxonomic structure) and physicochemical parameters (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, Secchi Disc) from 366 lake-years surveyed in 2008-2012 were used to develop the WFD-compiled trophic index (TITP+TN). Data from 104 lakes surveyed in 2013 served as a validation dataset. The TITP+TN was calculated based on the trophic optima of genera, calculated against both phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations for unstratified and stratified lakes separately. Statistical analysis showed a considerable number of relationships between the TITP+TN and eutrophication parameters (e.g., chlorophyll a concentration, cyanobacterial biomass). The results demonstrate the utility of the new phytoplankton trophic index for water-quality assessment. Based on the frequency distribution of index scores, the boundary values for subsequent classes of ecological status were elaborated. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Kolada A.,Institute of Environmental Protection
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2014
Data on aquatic and emergent vegetation, morphology and water quality from 274 Polish lowland lakes surveyed in the years 1996-2009 were used to validate the preliminary typology of Polish lakes based on macrophytes and to indicate the environmental parameters which most significantly determine the vegetation patterns in lakes under various morphological conditions. In highly alkaline lowland lakes representing non-disturbed conditions the key determinants influencing the vegetation patterns were mean depth and the shape of the littoral. Three morphological lake types were distinguished: shallow (<3.5 m), deep, and additionally, within the latter, deep ribbon-shaped, with a clearly elongated base and steep bed slopes. The lake types varied in their vegetation patterns developed under non-disturbed conditions. In the shallow lakes, the share of the phytolittoral in the total lake area (%phytol) was the highest (40-100%, 72.3% on average) and the maximum colonisation depth (C max) the lowest (3.2 m as the maximum) compared to the lakes from both deep types. In the ribbon-shaped deep lakes, %phytol and the plant coverage (%cover) were the lowest, the proportion of submerged vegetation was extraordinarily high (over 90%) and the emergent vegetation was extremely sparsely developed (<6%) compared to the lakes of the two other types. The alterations of aquatic vegetation resulting from the eutrophication process in distinguished morphological lake types were explored. Within the macrophyte variables tested, three groups of indicators were distinguished: (a) metrics performing best in selected lake types, i.e. the type-specific indicators (abundance metrics, %Pota), (b) metrics performing equally well in all the lake types, considered as the universal indicators (e.g. S-Chara, %Subm and %Emerg) and (c) metrics performing poorly in all the lake types, with generally limited applicability (most of the metrics on syntaxonomic richness). In the shallow lakes, %cover and %phytol performed notably better than in deep lakes, whereas Cmax worked best in deep lakes and showed the strongest response in the deep regular-shaped lakes. Moreover, in deep regular-shaped lakes the number of communities of stoneworts and submerged plants (S-Chara and S-Subm), and in deep ribbon-shaped lakes the proportion of area inhabited by vascular plant communities (%Pota) performed exceptionally better than in the other two lake types. The most universal metrics, performing equally well in all the lake types, were the proportions of submerged (%Subm) and emergent (%Emerg) vegetation in the total phytolittoral area. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kolada A.,Institute of Environmental Protection
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2010
The relationships between aquatic vegetation, anthropogenic pressures and water quality in 83 Polish lowland lakes were analysed in order to select the best responding macrophyte metrics to be used in ecological status assessment. Several metrics describing the syntaxonomic composition, abundance and spatial structure of macrophytes were tested in three morphological lake types (deep regular-shaped, deep ribbon-shaped and shallow) separately by using the Spearman rank correlation coefficients. Among all the parameters tested, only some anthropogenic pressure parameters (the percentage share of urban areas and forests in a catchment, the pollution load from point sources) and all the water quality indicators (TP, TN, Chla, SD) were significantly correlated with most of the macrophyte metrics, although for different lake types the strength and significance of relationships varied substantially. The macrophyte metrics which best responded to anthropogenic pressures and water quality changes were: (i) in deep regular-shaped lakes: the percentage share of Chara phytocenoses and rush phytocenoses in the total phytolittoral area, the maximum depth of plant distribution and the colonisation index; (ii) in deep ribbon-shaped lakes: the hydrophytes/helophytes area ratio, the percentage share of submerged and rush phytocenoses in the total phytolittoral area; (iii) in shallow lakes: the percentage share of Chara phytocenoses and rush phytocenoses in the total phytolittoral area, and the hydrophytes/helophytes area ratio. These metrics can then be used when elaborating new or refining existing macrophyte-based methods of ecological status assessment. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.