Pasztaleniec A.,Institute of Environmental Protection |
Poniewozik M.,Catholic University of Lublin
Limnologica | Year: 2010
The EU Water Framework Directive includes phytoplankton as one of the four biological elements to be used in the assessment of the ecological status of surface waters. In this work we establish the ecological status of four shallow lakes in the Polesie Region of Eastern Poland on the basis of phytoplankton and physicochemical data from the lake water. A number of recently developed phytoplankton indices, including the Carlson Index, Q index and German PSI were compared. Cyanoprokaryota, chlorophytes and dinophytes dominated in Lakes Głbokie and Sumin, while in the Lakes Rotcze and Maśluchowskie the biggest share belonged to Chlorophyta. On the basis of the Carlson Index, Lake Głbokie had the highest trophic score, while the lowest score was for Lake Rotcze. A similar result was also found with the Q index which indicated a good ecological state for Lake Rotcze (Q = 3.5), a bad state for Lake Głbokie (Q = 0.9), a poor status for Lake Sumin (Q = 1.2) and a moderate status for Lake Maśluchowskie (Q = 2.9). Similar results were obtained with the use of the German PSI which classified Lake Głbokie as bad status (PSI = 4.7) and Lake Rotcze as good (PSI = 2), although differences between the 2 indices appeared between the moderate and poor status lakes (respectively in the case of Lake Sumin - PSI = 2.6 and Lake Maśluchowskie - PSI = 4.4). © 2009 Elsevier GmbH.
Napiorkowska-Krzebietke A.,Stanislaw Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute |
Pasztaleniec A.,Institute of Environmental Protection |
Hutorowicz A.,Stanislaw Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute
Journal of Elementology | Year: 2012
A new phytoplankton-based method (the Phytoplankton Metric for Polish Lakes - PMPL) for the ecological status assessment of lakes has been developed in Poland. This method has not been validated and tested on independent data, hence the aim of the study was to check the applicability of this method and the sensitivity of different phytoplankton metrics along pressure gradient. Phytoplankton data were collected from 33 Polish lowland lakes (20 stratified, 13 non-stratified), during the growth season in the period from 2005 to 2009. The biomass of phytoplankton was calculated from cell volume measurements and chlorophyll a concentration was determined spectrophotometrically by the alcohol method. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations were determined by standard methods (PN-EN ISO 6878:2006p.7 and PN-EN 25663:2001, respectively) and water transparency was measured using a Secchi disk. For comparability, an ecological status was determined according to three phytoplankton-based methods: Polish, German and Hungarian. Polish metrics showed a strong correlation with the other metrics (German, Hungarian), which are broadly and successfully used for assessment in Europe. However, a statistically significant correlation was found between all the metric values and the main parameters: total phosphorus, total nitrogen and Secchi disk visibility. The metrics based on quantitative phytoplankton features were more sensitive to the growth of eutrophication than others, based on indicator taxa. Total phosphorus demonstrated a stronger relationship with the tested metrics than total nitro-gen. Phytoplankton metrics reacted quite well to pressure gradients because of the decreasing tendency of metric values along the TP and TN gradient and an increasing tendency along the Secchi disk visibility gradient. The multimetric PMPL may be recommended as useful for the assessment of the ecological status of Polish lakes.
Pasztaleniec A.,Institute of Environmental Protection
International Review of Hydrobiology | Year: 2016
The use of phytoplankton as a tool to assess the status of ecosystems in monitoring programmes should consider its taxonomic composition [Water Framework Directive-WFD, 2000/60/EC]. One of the approaches towards phytoplankton composition assessment in relation to eutrophication process is the use of phytoplankton trophic indices based on taxa preferences along a trophic gradient. Monitoring data on phytoplankton (biomass, taxonomic structure) and physicochemical parameters (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, Secchi Disc) from 366 lake-years surveyed in 2008-2012 were used to develop the WFD-compiled trophic index (TITP+TN). Data from 104 lakes surveyed in 2013 served as a validation dataset. The TITP+TN was calculated based on the trophic optima of genera, calculated against both phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations for unstratified and stratified lakes separately. Statistical analysis showed a considerable number of relationships between the TITP+TN and eutrophication parameters (e.g., chlorophyll a concentration, cyanobacterial biomass). The results demonstrate the utility of the new phytoplankton trophic index for water-quality assessment. Based on the frequency distribution of index scores, the boundary values for subsequent classes of ecological status were elaborated. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Konieczny K.,Silesian University of Technology |
Kwiecinska A.,Silesian University of Technology |
Gworek B.,Institute of Environmental Protection
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2011
Huge amount of slurry produced in high-density livestock farming needs proper management and utilization methods. The integrated system of centrifugation/two-step ultrafiltration/nanofiltration was used to recover water from pig slurry. PVDF UF (100 and 50 kDa), PES UF (10 and 5 kDa) and composite hydrophilic NF membranes (0.2 kDa) were used. System efficiency was validated according to final product quality and membranes capacity. The influence of membrane fouling on their performance and properties was also investigated. The study showed that among all discussed system configurations centrifugation-UF50- UF5-NF0.2 was the most effective. Thirty-three percentage of initial crude slurry volume was obtained as the final permeate. Strong influence of membranes fouling on system capacity was observed for UF, while for NF it had an impact on membranes properties. The finally obtained product was suitable to be reused as a sanitary safe industrial water e.g. for washing of animals and farmhouses. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kolada A.,Institute of Environmental Protection
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2014
Data on aquatic and emergent vegetation, morphology and water quality from 274 Polish lowland lakes surveyed in the years 1996-2009 were used to validate the preliminary typology of Polish lakes based on macrophytes and to indicate the environmental parameters which most significantly determine the vegetation patterns in lakes under various morphological conditions. In highly alkaline lowland lakes representing non-disturbed conditions the key determinants influencing the vegetation patterns were mean depth and the shape of the littoral. Three morphological lake types were distinguished: shallow (<3.5 m), deep, and additionally, within the latter, deep ribbon-shaped, with a clearly elongated base and steep bed slopes. The lake types varied in their vegetation patterns developed under non-disturbed conditions. In the shallow lakes, the share of the phytolittoral in the total lake area (%phytol) was the highest (40-100%, 72.3% on average) and the maximum colonisation depth (C max) the lowest (3.2 m as the maximum) compared to the lakes from both deep types. In the ribbon-shaped deep lakes, %phytol and the plant coverage (%cover) were the lowest, the proportion of submerged vegetation was extraordinarily high (over 90%) and the emergent vegetation was extremely sparsely developed (<6%) compared to the lakes of the two other types. The alterations of aquatic vegetation resulting from the eutrophication process in distinguished morphological lake types were explored. Within the macrophyte variables tested, three groups of indicators were distinguished: (a) metrics performing best in selected lake types, i.e. the type-specific indicators (abundance metrics, %Pota), (b) metrics performing equally well in all the lake types, considered as the universal indicators (e.g. S-Chara, %Subm and %Emerg) and (c) metrics performing poorly in all the lake types, with generally limited applicability (most of the metrics on syntaxonomic richness). In the shallow lakes, %cover and %phytol performed notably better than in deep lakes, whereas Cmax worked best in deep lakes and showed the strongest response in the deep regular-shaped lakes. Moreover, in deep regular-shaped lakes the number of communities of stoneworts and submerged plants (S-Chara and S-Subm), and in deep ribbon-shaped lakes the proportion of area inhabited by vascular plant communities (%Pota) performed exceptionally better than in the other two lake types. The most universal metrics, performing equally well in all the lake types, were the proportions of submerged (%Subm) and emergent (%Emerg) vegetation in the total phytolittoral area. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.