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Konieczny K.,Silesian University of Technology | Kwiecinska A.,Silesian University of Technology | Gworek B.,Institute of Environmental Protection
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2011

Huge amount of slurry produced in high-density livestock farming needs proper management and utilization methods. The integrated system of centrifugation/two-step ultrafiltration/nanofiltration was used to recover water from pig slurry. PVDF UF (100 and 50 kDa), PES UF (10 and 5 kDa) and composite hydrophilic NF membranes (0.2 kDa) were used. System efficiency was validated according to final product quality and membranes capacity. The influence of membrane fouling on their performance and properties was also investigated. The study showed that among all discussed system configurations centrifugation-UF50- UF5-NF0.2 was the most effective. Thirty-three percentage of initial crude slurry volume was obtained as the final permeate. Strong influence of membranes fouling on system capacity was observed for UF, while for NF it had an impact on membranes properties. The finally obtained product was suitable to be reused as a sanitary safe industrial water e.g. for washing of animals and farmhouses. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Agnieszka J.,Institute of Environmental Protection | Agnieszka J.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Barbara G.,Institute of Environmental Protection | Barbara G.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2012

The presented study was focused on soils developed from fluvioglacial sands from the Puszcza Borecka forest complex. The mobility of chromium, nickel and vanadium was evaluated with regard to litho- and pedogenic factors. The aim of the study was to determine with which soil constituents fractions of heavy metals are bound with particular attention drawn on the mobile fractions (F1. +. F2). Heavy metal fractions in the soils were determined using the sequential extraction method of Tessier et al. The purpose of sequential extraction methods to soil samples provides relevant information about possible toxicity when they are discharged into the soil environment. Chromium, nickel, and vanadium occurred predominantly in the fraction bound with iron and manganese oxides and in the residual fraction, thus showed low mobility. With regard to mobility, the elements studied can be arranged as follows: V. <. Cr. <. Ni. The content of the mobile fractions depended on the soil texture. The influence of the rusting process on the distribution of the bioavailable fractions was observed in the soil profiles. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Pasztaleniec A.,Institute of Environmental Protection | Poniewozik M.,Catholic University of Lublin
Limnologica | Year: 2010

The EU Water Framework Directive includes phytoplankton as one of the four biological elements to be used in the assessment of the ecological status of surface waters. In this work we establish the ecological status of four shallow lakes in the Polesie Region of Eastern Poland on the basis of phytoplankton and physicochemical data from the lake water. A number of recently developed phytoplankton indices, including the Carlson Index, Q index and German PSI were compared. Cyanoprokaryota, chlorophytes and dinophytes dominated in Lakes Głbokie and Sumin, while in the Lakes Rotcze and Maśluchowskie the biggest share belonged to Chlorophyta. On the basis of the Carlson Index, Lake Głbokie had the highest trophic score, while the lowest score was for Lake Rotcze. A similar result was also found with the Q index which indicated a good ecological state for Lake Rotcze (Q = 3.5), a bad state for Lake Głbokie (Q = 0.9), a poor status for Lake Sumin (Q = 1.2) and a moderate status for Lake Maśluchowskie (Q = 2.9). Similar results were obtained with the use of the German PSI which classified Lake Głbokie as bad status (PSI = 4.7) and Lake Rotcze as good (PSI = 2), although differences between the 2 indices appeared between the moderate and poor status lakes (respectively in the case of Lake Sumin - PSI = 2.6 and Lake Maśluchowskie - PSI = 4.4). © 2009 Elsevier GmbH.

Napiorkowska-Krzebietke A.,Stanislaw Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute | Pasztaleniec A.,Institute of Environmental Protection | Hutorowicz A.,Stanislaw Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute
Journal of Elementology | Year: 2012

A new phytoplankton-based method (the Phytoplankton Metric for Polish Lakes - PMPL) for the ecological status assessment of lakes has been developed in Poland. This method has not been validated and tested on independent data, hence the aim of the study was to check the applicability of this method and the sensitivity of different phytoplankton metrics along pressure gradient. Phytoplankton data were collected from 33 Polish lowland lakes (20 stratified, 13 non-stratified), during the growth season in the period from 2005 to 2009. The biomass of phytoplankton was calculated from cell volume measurements and chlorophyll a concentration was determined spectrophotometrically by the alcohol method. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations were determined by standard methods (PN-EN ISO 6878:2006p.7 and PN-EN 25663:2001, respectively) and water transparency was measured using a Secchi disk. For comparability, an ecological status was determined according to three phytoplankton-based methods: Polish, German and Hungarian. Polish metrics showed a strong correlation with the other metrics (German, Hungarian), which are broadly and successfully used for assessment in Europe. However, a statistically significant correlation was found between all the metric values and the main parameters: total phosphorus, total nitrogen and Secchi disk visibility. The metrics based on quantitative phytoplankton features were more sensitive to the growth of eutrophication than others, based on indicator taxa. Total phosphorus demonstrated a stronger relationship with the tested metrics than total nitro-gen. Phytoplankton metrics reacted quite well to pressure gradients because of the decreasing tendency of metric values along the TP and TN gradient and an increasing tendency along the Secchi disk visibility gradient. The multimetric PMPL may be recommended as useful for the assessment of the ecological status of Polish lakes.

Porebska G.,Institute of Environmental Protection | Ostrowska A.,Institute of Environmental Protection
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2013

We presented the results of study on carbon C stock in forest soils of coniferous and mixed deciduousconiferous habitats in Poland. The C stock was calculated for each soil horizon and for the layer to a depth of 1 m. We compared the results of studies conducted today with 30 years ago and assessed changes in C accumulation in soils during that period of time. The C stock in the compared habitats did not increase within 30 years, even though the age of the tree stands increased from 55 to 85 years.

Mill W.,Institute of Environmental Protection | Schlama A.,Institute of Environmental Protection
Archives of Environmental Protection | Year: 2010

A mass balance model to calculate critical loads of airborne acidity and eutrophication to forest ecosystems has been computerized. The SONOX software developed at the Institute of Environmental Protection replicates the sequence of events on the path from sulfur and nitrogen emission through their deposition and next overlaying it on critical loads values to identify the extent and areas of critical loads cxcccdance. To support decision making a converse direction is offered to assess the necessary emission reductions to meet assumed environmental goals by eliminating or suitably abating the critical loads cxcccdance. This software originally developed and applied to support the Polish contribution to the negotiations of the Oslo and Gothenburg Protocols oflhe Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution was thereafter used to assess the capacity of achieving the interim environmental quality targets oflhe NEC Directive in Poland, to support the dcvclopmenl of air protection programs for administrative units exposed to transboundary fluxes and other decision making purposes. ©Copyright by Institute of Envionmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences.

Pasztaleniec A.,Institute of Environmental Protection
International Review of Hydrobiology | Year: 2016

The use of phytoplankton as a tool to assess the status of ecosystems in monitoring programmes should consider its taxonomic composition [Water Framework Directive-WFD, 2000/60/EC]. One of the approaches towards phytoplankton composition assessment in relation to eutrophication process is the use of phytoplankton trophic indices based on taxa preferences along a trophic gradient. Monitoring data on phytoplankton (biomass, taxonomic structure) and physicochemical parameters (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, Secchi Disc) from 366 lake-years surveyed in 2008-2012 were used to develop the WFD-compiled trophic index (TITP+TN). Data from 104 lakes surveyed in 2013 served as a validation dataset. The TITP+TN was calculated based on the trophic optima of genera, calculated against both phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations for unstratified and stratified lakes separately. Statistical analysis showed a considerable number of relationships between the TITP+TN and eutrophication parameters (e.g., chlorophyll a concentration, cyanobacterial biomass). The results demonstrate the utility of the new phytoplankton trophic index for water-quality assessment. Based on the frequency distribution of index scores, the boundary values for subsequent classes of ecological status were elaborated. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Ostrowska A.,Institute of Environmental Protection | Porebska G.,Institute of Environmental Protection
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2014

The usefulness of the C/N ratio as an indicator of the decomposability of organic matter in forest soil was assessed. The assessment was based on the relationship between the C/N ratio and the contents of soil organic carbon (SOC), soil nitrogen (total N), dissolved total organic carbon (DTOC) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). SOC, total N, DTOC and DIN were determined in soils sampled in coniferous and coniferous-deciduous forest sites from genetic horizons of 48 soil profiles. The variability of the above soil parameters was determined and the correlation between these parameters and the C/N values were calculated. It was found that the C/N ratio in soil was shaped by the difference in the mobility of both elements, whereas the decrease in the C content in subsequent horizons was mostly higher than the decrease in the N content, which means that the C/N value decreased with the depth of a soil profile. When the loss of SOC and total N contents occurs at a similar rate, the C/N ratio is maintained at a more or less stable level despite the advancing SOM mineralization. When the rate of the carbon release from SOM differs from that of nitrogen or when there is an N input from external sources, the C/N ratio does not adequately describe the process of SOM mineralization as well. The correlation coefficients between the C/N ratio and other parameters indicate that the relationships between them are not significant or that there is no correlation at all. It was found that the percentage of DTOC in SOC seemed to be a better indicator of SOM mineralization than the C/N ratio. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kolada A.,Institute of Environmental Protection
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2014

Data on aquatic and emergent vegetation, morphology and water quality from 274 Polish lowland lakes surveyed in the years 1996-2009 were used to validate the preliminary typology of Polish lakes based on macrophytes and to indicate the environmental parameters which most significantly determine the vegetation patterns in lakes under various morphological conditions. In highly alkaline lowland lakes representing non-disturbed conditions the key determinants influencing the vegetation patterns were mean depth and the shape of the littoral. Three morphological lake types were distinguished: shallow (<3.5 m), deep, and additionally, within the latter, deep ribbon-shaped, with a clearly elongated base and steep bed slopes. The lake types varied in their vegetation patterns developed under non-disturbed conditions. In the shallow lakes, the share of the phytolittoral in the total lake area (%phytol) was the highest (40-100%, 72.3% on average) and the maximum colonisation depth (C max) the lowest (3.2 m as the maximum) compared to the lakes from both deep types. In the ribbon-shaped deep lakes, %phytol and the plant coverage (%cover) were the lowest, the proportion of submerged vegetation was extraordinarily high (over 90%) and the emergent vegetation was extremely sparsely developed (<6%) compared to the lakes of the two other types. The alterations of aquatic vegetation resulting from the eutrophication process in distinguished morphological lake types were explored. Within the macrophyte variables tested, three groups of indicators were distinguished: (a) metrics performing best in selected lake types, i.e. the type-specific indicators (abundance metrics, %Pota), (b) metrics performing equally well in all the lake types, considered as the universal indicators (e.g. S-Chara, %Subm and %Emerg) and (c) metrics performing poorly in all the lake types, with generally limited applicability (most of the metrics on syntaxonomic richness). In the shallow lakes, %cover and %phytol performed notably better than in deep lakes, whereas Cmax worked best in deep lakes and showed the strongest response in the deep regular-shaped lakes. Moreover, in deep regular-shaped lakes the number of communities of stoneworts and submerged plants (S-Chara and S-Subm), and in deep ribbon-shaped lakes the proportion of area inhabited by vascular plant communities (%Pota) performed exceptionally better than in the other two lake types. The most universal metrics, performing equally well in all the lake types, were the proportions of submerged (%Subm) and emergent (%Emerg) vegetation in the total phytolittoral area. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The relationships between aquatic vegetation, anthropogenic pressures and water quality in 83 Polish lowland lakes were analysed in order to select the best responding macrophyte metrics to be used in ecological status assessment. Several metrics describing the syntaxonomic composition, abundance and spatial structure of macrophytes were tested in three morphological lake types (deep regular-shaped, deep ribbon-shaped and shallow) separately by using the Spearman rank correlation coefficients. Among all the parameters tested, only some anthropogenic pressure parameters (the percentage share of urban areas and forests in a catchment, the pollution load from point sources) and all the water quality indicators (TP, TN, Chla, SD) were significantly correlated with most of the macrophyte metrics, although for different lake types the strength and significance of relationships varied substantially. The macrophyte metrics which best responded to anthropogenic pressures and water quality changes were: (i) in deep regular-shaped lakes: the percentage share of Chara phytocenoses and rush phytocenoses in the total phytolittoral area, the maximum depth of plant distribution and the colonisation index; (ii) in deep ribbon-shaped lakes: the hydrophytes/helophytes area ratio, the percentage share of submerged and rush phytocenoses in the total phytolittoral area; (iii) in shallow lakes: the percentage share of Chara phytocenoses and rush phytocenoses in the total phytolittoral area, and the hydrophytes/helophytes area ratio. These metrics can then be used when elaborating new or refining existing macrophyte-based methods of ecological status assessment. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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