Gregori R.,Institute of Entomology and Plant Pathology |
Meriggi P.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart |
Pietri A.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart |
Formenti S.,Institute of Entomology and Plant Pathology |
And 2 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2013
The aim of this work was to investigate the dynamics of fungi and related mycotoxins during cereal storage in silo bags. A 2-year trial was organised (2009-2011); in each year, two silo bags, filled with maize and durum wheat respectively, were prepared. During storage, meteorological data were collected from a close station and temperature, CO 2 and O 2 were measured inside the silos. Grain was sampled from silo filling (September) every 40 days until June (7/8 samples per silo per year). Water activity of grain, colony forming units (CFU) and mycotoxin content (fumonisins, aflatoxins and ochratoxin in maize, deoxynivalenol and ochratoxin in wheat) were determined. Temperature inside the silo bags followed the trend of external temperature, with a more limited variation. A decrease of O 2 was observed from 16.4% to 2.0% in maize and from 15.7% to 15.1% in wheat; the decrease was balanced by CO 2 increase. Minor variations were registered in grain water activity and CFU and mycotoxin content did not change significant throughout the storage period; the results were consistent in the two years. On the basis of these results, silo bags prove to be suitable for safe cereal storage. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Donadini G.,Institute of Entomology and Plant Pathology |
Fumi M.D.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart
Journal of Sensory Studies | Year: 2010
The sensory profiles of 72 beers commercially available in Italy were described and quantified using descriptive analysis procedures. Principal component analysis indicated that nearly 74% of the variance across samples can be described by the first six principal components. Raw materials and specifically grains impart flavors that are responsible for the main source of variations and discrimination among beers of the Italian market. Second direction of variation is summarized by the perceived overall structure of a given brand and its fruity ester flavors. Although sameness seems to be the key word for pale lagers of the market as emerges from the application of multivariate techniques, this study proved to be efficient in gaining an insight into the relationships between this class of beers and its flavor characteristics and revealed some subtle but clear differences among brands which took the lion's share of the market. Practical applications: The results of this study have practical implications for brewers, importers and distributors. Brewers who wish to introduce or re-position a new or existing beer brand into the Italian market can benefit from these pieces of information to improve the knowledge of the sensory structure of the beer market to better plan their industrial strategies. Moskowitz stated that mapping technique can be used by researchers " to identify which products compete with each other, as well as to discover whether or not there exist in the category unfilled holes that have promise." As competition intensifies, companies need to orientate more precisely and enhance more efficiently towards consumers' satisfaction and sensory properties of food and beverages are universally reported as determinants of product quality and acceptance. © 2009, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.