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Jean M.D.,Yung Ta Institute of Technology and Commerce | Li M.C.,Yung Ta Institute of Technology and Commerce | Li M.C.,Institute of Engineering Science and Technology | Chien T.H.,Kaohsiung Medical University | Chen C.J.,Yung Ta Institute of Technology and Commerce
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2011

The paper describes response surface methodology (RSM) based on design of experiments and analysis of variance (ANOVA) as a statistical design while developing a robust plasma transfer arc (PTA)coating process. Based on ANOVA, The relative important parameters with respect to surface at hardness values were identified in the Taguchi design, where they were further used in predictors. In addition, we applied three-dimensional graphs in RSM to develop a robust PTA response surface yielding the desired-better area of a treated layer. In this study, a quadratic polynomial with a Box-Behnken design is utilized. The results reveal that RSM provides the effective methods as compared to the traditional trial-and-error method for exploring the effects of controlled factors on response. A very good agreement was observed, as evidenced by R-squared value, 90%, between the predicted and the experimental data, and its error percent is found to be approximately 3.801% in the PTA-coating process. It is clear that RSM model demonstrated better accuracy in predicting surface hardness for PTA-coating process. Accordingly, RSM based on design of experiments was used as statistical PTA-coating design tools combined with the hardness model. Device zone optimization and yield enhancement have been demonstrated. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications.


Han C.-L.,Institute of Engineering Science and Technology | Lay J.-J.,National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology | Shieh W.K.,University of Pennsylvania
Journal of Environmental Engineering (United States) | Year: 2015

The effectiveness of the Bacillus thermoamylovorans-enabled digested sludge in catalyzing cellulosic fermentation was tested under batch, mesophilic (40 plus or minus 1°C), unacclimatized, and high-loading (1.6 g cellulose in 80 mL aqueous solution) conditions. B. thermoamylovorans isolated from a molasses-fed anaerobic bioreactor was capable of quickly converting cellulose to alcohols and volatile organic acids (VOAs) at an overall rate of 0.32 g CODS/g VSS-day [volatile suspended solids (VSS), soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODS)] without producing H2. The digested sludge grown on pig manure, after an initial lag of 6 days, was able to produce H2, alcohols, and VOAs from cellulose at the rates of 0.021 L H2/g VSS-day and 0.16 g CODS/g VSS-day, respectively. The experiment which used a mixture of 0.014 g B. thermoamylovorans and 0.172 g digested sludge yielded the best results, with about 11-fold and sevenfold rate increases in H2 production and acid fermentation, respectively, compared to the digested sludge. Moreover, the initial lag of the B. thermoamylovorans-enabled digested sludge was reduced to about 3.0 days. In addition to H2, the main end products included ethanol (2,300 mg/L), acetic acid (2,300 mg/L), and butyric acid (3,600 mg/L). Under the conditions tested, the presence of cooperative interactions between B. thermoamylovorans and digested sludge was evident, provided that the mass of the former was small relative to that of the latter in the mixture cultures (i.e., 3-8%). © 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Dubey A.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Singh S.K.,Solid State Physics Laboratory | Tulachan B.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Roy M.,Institute of Engineering Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2016

Sustainable charge storage devices require materials that are environmentally benign, readily moldable, easily synthesizable, and profitable for applications in the electronics industry. Nano iron pyrite (FeS2) is one such material, which is applicable in diverse areas like photovoltaic devices to seed dressing in agriculture. In this work, we propose an innovative application of nano FeS2viz., as a symmetric charge storage device that is flexible, portable, and lightweight; along with its fabrication details. The device consists of a (H3PO4)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) electrolyte gel sandwiched between two similar electrodes made up of FeS2/poly-aniline (PA), upon which graphite sheets are used as current collectors. Electrodes were characterized by XRD, FTIR and SEM. The device was calibrated by cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycle. In its present laboratory prototype form, it powers solid-state electronic devices and electric motors. Further refinements of this device will open up new avenues in the field of sustainable charge storage devices and low power electronics. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.


Aziz F.,University of Peshawar | Aziz F.,Institute of Engineering science and Technology | Aziz F.,University of Malaya | Khan G.I.,University of Malaya | And 7 more authors.
Pigment and Resin Technology | Year: 2015

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) on improvement of physical and electrical properties of vanadyl phthalocyanine derivative. The correlation between the physical characteristics of the active layers, comprising vanadyl 2,9,16, 23-tetraphenoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (VOPcPhO) and PCBM, and the electrical properties of metal/organic/metal devices have been studied. The use of soluble vanadyl phthalocyanine derivative makes it very attractive for a variety of applications due to its tunable properties and high solubility. Design/methodology/approach - The sandwich type structures Al/VOPcPhO/Al and Al/VOPcPhO:PCBM/Al were fabricated by spin casting the active organic layers between the top and bottom (aluminum) electrodes. The stand-alone (VOPcPhO) and composite (VOPcPhO:PCBM) thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, UV/Vis and Raman spectroscopy. The electronic properties of the metal/organic/ metal devices were studied using current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in dark at room temperature. Findings - The values of barrier height for Al/VOPcPhO/Al and Al/VOPcPhO:PCBM/Al devices were obtained from the forward bias I-V curves and were found to be 0.7 eV and 0.62 eV, respectively. The present study indicates that the device employing VOPcPhO:PCBM composite film as the active layer, with better structural and morphological characteristics, results in reduced barrier height at the metal-organic film interface as compared to the one fabricated with the stand-alone film. Research limitations/implications - It is shown that doping VOPcPhO with PCBM improves the crystallinity, morphology and junction properties. Practical implications - The spin coating technique provides a simple, less expensive and effective approach for preparing thin films. The soluble VOPcPhO is conveniently dissolved in a number of organic solvents. Originality/value - The physical properties of the VOPcPhO:PCBM composite thin film and the electrical properties of the composite thin-film-based metal/organic/metal devices have not been reported in the literature, as far as our knowledge is concerned.


Banerjee S.,Institute of Engineering Science and Technology | Mandal S.,Institute of Engineering Science and Technology | Barua A.K.,Institute of Engineering Science and Technology | Mukherjee N.,Institute of Engineering Science and Technology
Catalysis Communications | Year: 2016

Hierarchical indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowhiskers have been deposited on glass substrates by electron beam evaporation technique. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The sub-bandgap defect levels were found to be responsible for significant visible light driven photocatalytic activity shown by the deposited films towards the common industrial pollutant Rose Bengal dye. The results indicate potential applicability of the material in waste water treatment. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Zubair M.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Zubair M.,Institute of Engineering science and Technology | Francavilla M.A.,Instituto Superiore Mario Boella | Zheng D.,Polytechnic University of Turin | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation | Year: 2016

The integral equation analysis of large perfect electric conductor bodies is commonly formulated in terms of combined field integral equations (CFIE) that avoid spurious internal resonances. The dual-surface electric field integral equation (DSEFIE) is a less employed alternative approach; we discuss here how to cure its shortcomings and enhance its advantages over the CFIE for large bodies of nontrivial geometrical complexity. We study the convergence and accuracy of the DSEFIE also with respect to the current state of the art in the testing of the magnetic field integral equation. Examples of applications to large and realistic composite structures show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. © 2016 IEEE.


Liu Y.-T.,National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology | Li B.-J.,Institute of Engineering Science and Technology | Chiu N.-H.,National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology | Huang H.-J.,National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology
Materials Science Forum | Year: 2014

In this paper, a data acquisition system was constructed for examining grinding performance of a plunge grinding machine. The system is capable of simultaneously recording power assumption of main spindle, grinding normal force, and material removal of a workpiece. Through grinding experiments for cylindrical workpieces, parameters of grinding process including normal force, power consumption, and time history of diametric error were obtained. With the obtained parameters, the stiffness and time constant of the grinding system were being derived such that the performance of the grinding machine was well evaluated. The configured system described in this paper can be applied to improve grinding performance through further online compensation process. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

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