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Ortmann R.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Pasel C.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Luckas M.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Kraas S.,University of Hamburg | And 3 more authors.
Chemical Engineering and Technology | Year: 2015

Adsorption processes are frequently applied to separate traces of hazardous and toxic substances from gas streams. Hence, knowledge of sorption characteristics of these substances on standard adsorbents is essential. Sorption of hexanal and acetaldehyde from a nitrogen gas stream in trace concentrations on activated carbon and ordered mesoporous carbon-based adsorbents (CMK) is studied. A magnetic suspension balance and an attached gaschromatograph-mass spectrometer were used to analyze the sorption process both gravimetrically and spectrometrically. Both types of adsorbents show a higher capacity for hexanal than acetaldehyde. The activated carbon exhibits considerable differences in regard to desorption of hexanal compared to the mesoporous CMK. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Gartiser S.,Hydrotox GmbH | Flach F.,Hydrotox GmbH | Nickel C.,Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology e.V. | Stintz M.,TU Dresden | And 4 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2014

The fate assessment of nanomaterials in municipal sewage treatment plants (STP) is a crucial step for their environmental risk assessment and may be assessed by monitoring full scale STP, dosage to medium scale pilot STP or by laboratory testing. For regulatory purposes preferably standardised test protocols such as the OECD guidelines for testing of chemicals should be used. However, these test protocols have not yet been specifically designed for nanoparticles. Therefore, the fate and behavior of a TiO2 nanomaterial (P25, average hydrodynamic diameter <250nm) was investigated in laboratory sewage treatment plants according to the OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals 303 A. It is concluded that this guideline is applicable for the testing of nanomaterials if modifications regarding the dosage, nitrifying conditions, and a characterisation of the nanoparticles in the effluent are applied. A compilation of the cumulative mass balance by comparison of the total dosage added with the amount in the outflow and in the activated sludge is recommended. In this study, the majority of the TiO2 nanomaterial (>95%) was retained in the sewage sludge and only 3-4% was found in the effluent. No effect of the TiO2 nanomaterials on the biodegradation or nitrification was observed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Dimakopoulou K.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Samoli E.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Beelen R.,University Utrecht | Andersen Z.J.,Danish Cancer Society | And 71 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2014

Rationale: Prospective cohort studies have shown that chronic exposure to particulate matter and traffic-related air pollution is associated with reduced survival. However, the effects on nonmalignant respiratory mortality are less studied, and the data reported are less consistent. Objectives: We have investigated the relationship of long-term exposure to air pollution and nonmalignant respiratory mortality in 16 cohorts with individual level data within the multicenter European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Methods: Data from 16 ongoing cohort studies from Europe were used. The total number of subjects was 307,553. There were 1,559 respiratory deaths during follow-up. Measurements and Main Results: Air pollution exposure was estimated by land use regression models at the baseline residential addresses of study participants and traffic-proximity variables were derived from geographical databases following a standardized procedure within the ESCAPE study. Cohort-specific hazard ratios obtained by Cox proportional hazard models from standardized individual cohort analyses were combined using metaanalyses. We found no significant associations between air pollution exposure and nonmalignant respiratory mortality. Most hazard ratios were slightly below unity, with the exception of the traffic-proximity indicators. Conclusions: In this study of 16 cohorts, there was no association between air pollution exposure and nonmalignant respiratorymortality.Copyright © 2014 by the American Thoracic Society.

Monse C.,Ruhr University Bochum | Monz C.,Institute for the Research on Hazardous Substances | Dahmann D.,Institute for the Research on Hazardous Substances | Asbach C.,Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology e.V. | And 6 more authors.
Aerosol Science and Technology | Year: 2014

In the EU there is an increasing need for regulatory agencies to derive health based threshold limits based on human inhalation studies with airborne particles. A necessary prerequisite for such projects is the development of a suitable generator system to produce nanoparticle test aerosols for human whole-body inhalation studies. We decided to use a generator with flame-based heating of aqueous precursor solutions. Validation of the test system was done by generating zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles with minimal contamination of trace gases, i.e., nitric oxides or carbon monoxide that could confound the effects seen in exposed subjects. ZnO was selected based on the uncertainties surrounding its health effects after exposure at the workplace. The generation process of the developed flame generator yields ZnO nanoparticles with monomodal size distribution and very good temporal stability. The maximum target exposure mass concentration of 2 mg/m3 ZnO, with a resulting median particle diameter of 57 nm, is attainable in our human exposure laboratory. The morphological examination shows typical agglomerates and aggregates formed by high temperature processes. Overall, the performed experiments confirm that a constant exposure can be provided for all subjects at all times. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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