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Zhang B.,Institute of Endemic Disease | Li D.,Institute of Endemic Disease | Zhang R.,Institute of Endemic Disease
Chinese Journal of Endemiology | Year: 2014

Objective Through investigation of children fluorosis illness, family households improved stoves and related life styles, to provide a scientific basis for sustainable control of endemic fluorosis.Methods In 2013, in Huishui County and Baiyun District, 3 towns were selected in each county (district), and 3 villages were selected in each town. All 8-12 years old children in the school of these villages were checked dental fluorosis, which was diagnosed according to "Dental Fluorosis Diagnosis" (WS/T 208-2011 ) ; at the same time, 10 families were selected to survey the situation of improved stoves and related life styles.Results Dental fluorosis detection rate of 8 - 12 years old children in Huishui and Baiyun were 2.75% (23/836) and 2.26% (11/487), which were all lower than 30%. Qualified rate of improved stoves and qualified stoves correct utilization rate were all 100.0% (90/90). For human consumption, the correct rate of com drying was 100.0% (90/90) ; the correct rates of chili drying were 98.9% (89/90) and 100.0% (90/90). Conclusions The prevention effect is obvious, which has reached the control standards. We should continue to improve the long-term mechanism of comprehensive control measures, and to achieve substantial elimination of coal-burning endemic fluorosis. Fluorosis, dental ; Coal; Fluoride poisoning; Stoves improvement ; Data collection ; Outcome evaluation. Source


Zhang B.-Y.,Institute of Endemic Disease | Li D.-S.,Institute of Endemic Disease | He P.,Institute of Endemic Disease | Liang Y.,Institute of Endemic Disease
Chinese Journal of Endemiology | Year: 2013

Objective: To observe the effect of health education and installation of improved stove in control of coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis in Pingba County of Guizhou Province. Methods: Two towns (Shizi and Qibo) of Pingba County that had implemented the health education and installed the improved stoves for control of coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis were selected as the investigation sites. Two villages in each selected town and 30 householders as well as all students of grade 4 - 6 were investigated. Questionnaires were made by survey of the fluorosis control knowledge, household investigations were used to know the use of household stoves, corn and peppers drying method, and the dental fluorosis of children aged 8 - 12 were examined by Dean methods before the intervention (2006) and after implementation (2009) of health education and improvement of stoves. Results: The awareness of fluorosis control among students and households after the intervention was 97.36% (405/416) and 86.46%(415/480), respectively, and the difference was statistically significant(χ2 = 658.86, 163.10, all P < 0.01) compared with that before the intervention[32.19%(1083/3364), 43.33%(130/300)]. Correct using rate of the household stoves was 95.42%(229/240) after the intervention and 45.85%(3976/8672) before the intervention, the difference was statistically significant (χ2 = 230.25, P < 0.01). The correct rates of drying corn and chili were 91.67%(110/120) and 97.50%(117/120) before the intervention, and 20.00%(12/60), 26.67%(16/60) after the intervention, the difference was statistically significant(χ2 = 94.07, 104.02, all P < 0.01). The incidences of dental fluorosis of children aged 8 - 12 were 31.21%(1305/4182) after the intervention and 87.71%(2856/3256) before the intervention, the difference was statistically significant(χ2 = 2371.91, P < 0.01). Conclusions: The measures of health education and intervention of stove improvement in Pingba County of Guizhou Province for prevention and control of coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis is effective. Source


Zhang B.-Y.,Institute of Endemic Disease | Li D.-S.,Institute of Endemic Disease | Liang Y.,Institute of Endemic Disease | Hu X.-Q.,Institute of Endemic Disease | Zhang R.-Z.,Institute of Endemic Disease
Chinese Journal of Endemiology | Year: 2011

Objective: To study the follow-up management strategies after improving stoves for controlling coal-burning type endemic fluorosis in Guizhou and to provide a scientific basis for exploring the follow-up management measures. Methods: In 2006-2009, three counties of Puding, Bijie and Liuzhi with improved stoves in 2005 and implemented follow-up management measures for subsequent three years were chosen, 3 towns were chosen randomly in each chosen county, 2 villages were selected randomly in each chosen town, 10 households were investigated randomly in each chosen village, and 20 students were investigated of the knowledge of fluorosis control. The investigation included also the usage of the stoves, dehydration methods of grain and related conditions. Results: &circled digit oneThe head of the family and student awareness of fluorosis control were 82.6% (743/900) and 91.7%(1650/1800), respectively, and 35.0%(385/1100) and 61.0%(6605/10835), respectively, before the test, and the difference was statistically significant (χ 2 = 33.04, 1189.12, all P < 0.01). &circled digit twoThe rates of chimney out of the house were 88.5%(69/78) and 100.0%(102/102), respectively, compared with those before the trial[74.4% (2125/2856) and 2.1% (104/4984), respectively], the difference was statistically significant (χ 2 = 720.56, 4295.38, all P < 0.01). The iron stove and the table stove's airtight utilization rates were 85.9% (67/78) and 100.0% (102/102), respectively. Circled digit threeThe corn and the hot pepper's correct drying rates were 100.0%(180/180). Compared with those[27.2%(49/180) and 32.2%(58/180), respectively]before the trial, the difference was statistically significant (χ 2 = 26.68, 37.38, all P < 0.01). The corn and the hot pepper's washing rates before eating were 95.0% (57/60) and 98.3% (177/180), respectively. Compared with those [85.0% (153/180) and 77.8% (140/180)] before the trial, the difference was statistically significant (χ 2 = 135.00, 490.82, all P < 0.01). Conclusions: The target population ' s awareness and knowledge of fluorosis prevention and related behavior are significantly elevated and enhanced after implementation of the three years post-management, which has reached the desired goal. The strategies of the follow-up management suits Guizhou province and widespread application is suggested. Source


Zhang N.-H.,Institute of Endemic Disease | An D.,Institute of Endemic Disease | He P.,Institute of Endemic Disease | Li D.-S.,Institute of Endemic Disease | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology | Year: 2010

Objective: To explore the effect of different processing and drying methods of corn and hot pepper on fluorine content in coal-burning type of the endemic fluorosis areas, and to screen food processing and drying methods which meet the quality requirements of grain drying and able to effectively reduce the total fluoride intake of local population. Methods: Farmers of endemic fluorosis area in Bijie, Guizhou province were divided into 3 groups: sun-baked drying group, stove drying group with air-tight cover and stove drying group with no cover, 10 households in each group. Corn and fresh hot pepper and samples dried for 2 weeks, or 1, 3, 6-month were collected, and water and fluoride content were detected, and the total daily fluoride intake were calculated in accordance with the "Determination of Water in Food"(GB/T 5009.3-2003) and "Determination of Fluorine in Foods" (GB/T 5009.18-2003). Results: Fluoride content in fresh corn and dried for 2 weeks, or 1, 3, 6-month [of sunbaked drying group: (1.40 ± 0.16), (1.56 ± 0.14), (2.15 ± 0.47), (2.70 ± 0.64), (4.06 ± 1.75)mg/kg, stove drying group with air-tight coven(1.41 ± 0.16),(2.39 ± 0.56), (4.60 ± 0.97), (8.46 ± 5.55), (11.36 ± 3.60)mg/kg, stove drying group with no cover; (1.40 ± 0.13), (4.69 ± 3.97), (4.47 ± 2.77), (9.65 ± 6.47), (26.12 ± 14.52) mgAg] and pepper [sun-baked drying group: (5.41 ± 1.61), (16.60 ± 7.62), (32.60 ± 7.88), (50.26 ± 17.60), (24020 ± 27249)mgAg, stove drying group with air-tight cover: (754 ± 2.95), (3238 ± 1150), (119.18 ± 156.45), (224.00 ± 196.58), (495.70 ± 417.29)mgAg, stove drying group with no cover: (4.82 ± 1.25), (44.30 ± 13.48), (122.89 ± 66.43), (334.23 ± 166.05), (531.01 ± 397.40)mgAg] increased with elongation of drying time, and the group difference was significant(F= 44.77, 128,71, 126.87, 41.61, 53.63, 170.63, all P< 0.05), with the largest rate of increase in stove drying group with no cover, and the lowest in sun-baked drying group; fluoride was significantly lower (t = 7.93,63.07,5.36,11.98,55.76,7.45, all P < 0.05) after sample washing; total fluoride intake per person per day was 2.57 mg in local adult when ate washed and sun-baked corn, peppers, the total fluoride intake were 5.92, 8.14 mg when ate the food processed by other two drying methods and washed corn, peppers, respectively. Conclusions: In the coal-burning type of fluorosis endemic area, should take appropriate health education measures, and instruct local residents to use sun bake their edible corn and pepper for human consumption, and cultivate a habit of washing com and pepper before cooking, which can reduce the population total fluoride intake, and control endemic fluorosis. Source


Zhang B.,Institute of Endemic Disease | Li D.,Institute of Endemic Disease | Zhang N.,Institute of Endemic Disease | He P.,Institute of Endemic Disease | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology | Year: 2014

Objective: To explore the changes of children's dental fluorosis before and after implementation of comprehensive prevention and control intervention in coal-buming-bome endemic fluorosis areas of Guizhou Province, and to provide a scientific basis for making corresponding prevention and control measures. Methods: In 2010, according to a simple random cluster sampling method, 1/5 of the villages out of 1/5 of the towns of Zunyi, Kaiyang and Longli Counties, were selected as investigation sites for inspection of dental fluorosis in 8 - 12 years old children and a longitudinal comparison was done with historical related dental fluorosis (year 1986 and 2000). Dental fluorosis of children was diagnosed by Dean method. Results: In Zunyi, Kaiyang and Longli Counties,the detection rates of 8 - 12 years old children's dental fluorosis were 23.76%(202/850), 15.77% (79/501) and 11.17%(42/376), respectively. The detection rates of dental fluorosis in the 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 years old age group of children were 11.52% (19/165), 17.19%(44/256), 20.20% (81/401), 18.61% (75/403) and 20.72%( 104/502), respectively, and there was no significant difference between groups(χ2 = 2.90, P > 0.05). The survey results of this investigation in the three counties in 2000 were 34.20%(7 805/22 821), 39.77%(1 782/ 4 481), 60.88%(2 806/4 609), and the differences were statistically significant between the results of 2010 and 2000(χ2 = 37.81, 110.91, 350.76, all P < 0.01). And compared with the results of 1986[34.29% (9 463/27 596), 36.30%(2 708/7 460), 35.72% (1 896/5 308)], the difference of Zunyi County was not statistically significant (χ2 = 0.045, P > 0.05), but for Kaiyang and Longli the differences were statistically significant (χ2 = 14.35, 626.39, all P < 0.01). Conclusions: The effect of comprehensive prevention and control intervention is very obvious. In the 3 countíes, the incidence rates of 8 - 12 years old children's dental fluorosis are already dropped to below 30% of the control standard. Subsequent management should be carried out and the state of disease should be evaluated for organization-assessment acceptance in accordance with relevant hygiene standards in a planned way. Source

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