Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems

Sofia, Bulgaria

Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems

Sofia, Bulgaria

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Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENERGY-2007-1.1-03 | Award Amount: 4.37M | Year: 2008

IDEAL-Cell proposes to develop a new innovative and competitive concept of a high temperature Fuel Cell, operated in the range 600-700C, based on the junction between a PCFC anode/electrolyte part and a SOFC electrolyte/cathode, through a mixed H2 and O2 conducting porous ceramic membrane. Protons created at the anode progress toward the central membrane to meet with Oxygen ions created at the cathode, to form water, which is evacuated through the interconnected porosity network. Therefore, in our concept, Hydrogen, Oxygen and water are located in 3 independent chambers, which allows avoiding all the detrimental consequences linked to the presence of water at electrodes (low fuel and electrical efficiency, interconnect corrosion, need for a gas counter-flow). The IDEAL-Cell concept brings a considerable enhancement of the overall system efficiency (fine-tuning of the catalytic properties of the electrode, possibility of applying a pressure on both the electrode sides, more simpler and compact stack-design with less sophisticated interconnects, more efficient pre-heating of gas, simplified heat exchange system for co-generation, availability of high quality pure water for vaporeforming ). This 4-year project, divided in 2 parts, is organized so that the risk is minimized at each step. The first 2 years will focus on the proof of the concept with routine materials; the last 2 years will be dedicated to the development of an optimized short-stack with advanced materials and architecture. The project work programme is based on extensive theory and modelling, material development, testing techniques development, benchmarking and dissemination of the knowledge acquired during the duration of the project. The best European teams have been carefully selected according to their complementary expertises and skills, and so that the type of activities involved (academic research, applied research, materials supply) ensures the success of the IDEAL-Cell project.


Moreira S.D.F.C.,University of Minho | Silva C.J.R.,University of Minho | Prado L.A.S.A.,TU Hamburg - Harburg | Costa M.F.M.,University of Minho | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Polymer Science, Part B: Polymer Physics | Year: 2012

Flexible hybrid xerogels bringing together high optical transparency up to 96%, low shrinkage down to 5.5%, very smooth surface (average roughness of about 0.3 nm) and thermal stability up to 200 °C were achieved as a result of the optimization of sol-gel preparative method and a new combination of sol-gel precursors. Two types of hybrid materials (hereafter referred, respectively, as urea-silicate and amino-alcohol-silicate gels) were synthesized in this work. The shrinkage and the transparency of these materials have been drastically improved by using two different derived siloxanes (3-isocyanate propyltriethoxysilane and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane) and two amine-terminated polyether precursors with different molecular weights. A drying process was implemented to minimize yellowing of prepared samples. Under these conditions, we were able to efficiently reproduce a well-defined imprinted pattern at materials surface by using an original casting mould. The study of the diffraction characteristics of the obtained grating revealed a good reproducibility of the imprinted grating that shows to be comparable with the original mould. The developed methodology opens the possibility to produce diffraction lenses with a wide range of forms by a simple method based on sol-gel process. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-2012-1 | Award Amount: 1.48M | Year: 2012

Climate change is one of the largest threats facing the world today. At the forefront of combating this issue are low carbon technologies. Recently, HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicles) have come forward as the most achievable solution of the moment. At present, HEV use expensive Lithium ion and NiM batteries due to their high power to weight ratio. Lead-acid batteries are a cheaper option, but due to their lower power to weight ratio they are not used. The MEMLAB project aims to solve this through the development of lightweight electrodes for use in lead-acid batteries. The project will use state-of-the-art fibre production technology to create titanium and aluminium fibre networks. These will be coated in lead and lead oxide. The objective is to achieve a greater than 50% reduction in the overall weight of a lead-acid battery thereby significantly increasing their power to weight ratio making them a realistic alternative for application in hybrid electric vehicles. In addition to application in the hybrid electric vehicle market, the replacement of standard lead-acid batteries, containing large and heavy quantities of lead, by lightweight lead-acid batteries will also lead to a significant reduction in the polluting effect of road-going vehicles due to the large quantity of vehicles in use. The number of lead-acid batteries currently manufactured in Europe is approximately 70 million per year. The project consortium has been specifically constructed so that the research partners deliver the technical research required by the SME consortium partners. Successful completion of project MEMLAB will significantly strengthen the competitive position of the participating SMEs by both opening new markets, hybrid electric vehicles, and expanding opportunities in existing markets, lead-acid batteries. Furthermore, the project consortium will also seek to identify and evaluate further market applications, for example industrial filtration as well as fuel cells.


Thorel A.S.,MINES ParisTech Center of materials | Abreu J.,MINES ParisTech Center of materials | Ansar S.A.,German Aerospace Center | Barbucci A.,University of Genoa | And 13 more authors.
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2013

The Dual Membrane Cell (DM-Cell) is an innovative concept for solid state fuel cells operating in the temperature range 600-700°C. It is based on a junction between the cathode/electrolyte part of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and the anode/electrolyte part of a protonic SOFC (PCFC) via a mixed H + and O2- conducting porous ceramic membrane, named Dual Membrane (DM). This Dual Membrane is the key feature of the DM-Cell architecture and constitutes a third independent gas compartment for water formation and evacuation. This innovation is expected to reduce the drawbacks associated to the presence of water at one or the other electrodes taking place in conventional SOFC and PCFC. The proof of the DM-Cell concept was obtained by several dedicated experiments, i.e. through the electrical characterization of complete cells in a three-compartments rig, specifically designed to detect water vapor formation in theDMcompartment. The paper reports the proof of the concept of the DM-Cell through a set of electrochemical results performed on thick model cells. The applicability of a potentially industrial shaping process to this new design is demonstrated on plasma sprayed metal supported complete dual membrane cell. © 2013 The Electrochemical Society.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMP-13-2014 | Award Amount: 6.61M | Year: 2015

In ZAS the topic NMP-13-2014: Storage of energy produced by decentralised sources will be addressed in order to improve the performance of rechargeable zinc-air batteries as a promising option for stationary energy storage. The overall objective of ZAS is to enable the use of distributed and intermittent renewable energy sources by further developing this type of battery technology. The new battery is expected to have an energy density higher than 250 Wh/kg and 300 Wh/L, and reversibility of more than 1000 cycles at 80 % DOD, good safety performance and a cost lower than 300 /kWh. Through close interaction between computer simulations and experimental testing, ZAS will select and develop nanostructured electrode and electrolyte materials used in an innovative cell design. Modelling materials, structures, and dynamics on different length scales will contribute to a rational cell. After generation of the materials and validation of our full cell model, we will predict cell performance for a variety of cell designs and operating conditions, providing data into the technology validation by simulating different scenarios including hybrid systems in which zinc-air batteries are used as storage devices. The synergy with other technologies will be obtained through the strong experience the members of the consortium possess towards other types of metal-air batteries and in related technologies e.g. hydrogen fuel cells and water electrolyzers. The involvement of an end user in the consortium will ensure that the developed technology meets the requirements for hybrid constellations of energy storage. The exploitation and business plan developed in ZAS will be based explicitly on energy system simulation and validation of the feasibility of using zinc-air batteries for energy storage by performing life cycle assessment (LCA). Material selection, up-scalability, and innovative design will be crucial for identifying how any follow-up should be organized and financed.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2013.3.1 | Award Amount: 4.41M | Year: 2014

The project aims at developing reliable predictive models to estimate long-term (i.e. > 20 kh) performance and probability of failure of SOFC stacks based on existing materials and design produced by the industrial partners. This will allow the realization of stacks with extended service intervals and reduced maintenance cost with respect to the present stack technology. The extension of service life will be supported by the introduction of Early Warning Output Signals triggered counterstrategies. The project is structured into three phases: consolidation of knowledge and refinement of models on a previously operated State of Art stack (1st Loop); enhancement of materials, design and predictive models via iterative loops (Improvement Iterative Loop); statistical validation of achieved improvements via standard and accelerated tests (Validation Process). The stack is a system of interfaces/interphases giving rise to complex phenomena that which have to be separated in single phenomena processes. The single phenomena are generated by the minimum of interfaces/interphases in a quasi-independent way and therefore suitable for a separate deep investigation via micro-samples studies. The improvements will be especially validated by: the application of accelerated test protocols; the evaluation of robustness of stacks and components toward load cycles and thermal cycles. The comparison with an operating not cycled stack will give the value of performance (voltage) loss for the rated stack life cycle that has to be <5% for 100 load cycles (idle to rated load) or 50 thermal cycles (room temperature to operating temperature). The outcomes will be statistically demonstrated by operating 6 stacks in standard conditions and a minimum of 3 micro-sample per interphase in standard, cycled and accelerated conditions with constant monitoring via modelling.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 1.74M | Year: 2009

Water arguably is the only true renewable source of hydrogen fuel. However extraction of the hydrogen requires significant energy input; either thermal, electrical or light. By utilizing a renewable electrical energy source, water electrolysis offers a practical route to sustainable hydrogen production. The coupling of electrolysis with renewable electrical energy (e.g. from wind) enables the full available energy to be stored as fuel (hydrogen) when there is low electrical energy demand. In addition water electrolysis offers a convenient method of localised hydrogen supply which overcomes problems and issues of its distribution. The use of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) or solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) in water electrolysis enables hydrogen production from pure (demineralised) water and electricity. PEM water electrolysis systems offer advantages over traditional technologies; greater energy efficiency, higher production rates (per unit electrode area), and more compact design. A restricting aspect of water electrolysis is the relatively high cost of the electrical energy. This programme is targeted at reducing this electrical energy requirement and reducing electrolyser cost by researching new materials for electrodes and membranes in PEM electrolysers that function at higher temperatures; thereby reducing thermodynamic energy requirements and accelerating electrode kinetics. Thus the aim of this research is to form a collaborative training programme that focuses on hydrogen production from water using advanced, medium temperature proton exchange membrane electrolysers. By operating cells at higher temperatures the free energy of the cell reaction falls and thus lower standard potentials are required. In addition, moving to the higher temperatures can enable reduction in Pt catalyst use and/or use of non-Pt catalysts for electrodes. In these ways we can reduce the capital and operating costs of PEM hydrogen electrolysers. Although high temperature elec


Boukoureshtlieva R.I.,Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems | Hristov S.M.,Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems | Milusheva Y.D.,Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems | Atanassov P.B.,University of New Mexico | Kaisheva A.R.,Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems
Bulgarian Chemical Communications | Year: 2011

This review summarizes the long time experience of the team at the Electrochemistry of Biocatalysts and Metal-Air Systems Department in the field of the mediated enzyme electrodes. Investigated is the redox behaviour of a mediated enzyme electrode depending on the kind of carbon materials, needed to produce the electrode (compact carbon material - pyrolytic graphite or dispersed carbon material - carbon black), the type of mediators (ferrocene derivates, nickelocene and benzoqoquinone), and the type of enzyme (glucose oxidase and lactate oxidase). © 2011 Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Union of Chemists in Bulgaria.

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