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Watts A.B.,University of Oxford | Nomikou P.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Moore J.D.P.,University of Oxford | Parks M.M.,Institute of Earth science | Alexandri M.,Hellenic Center for Marine Research
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems | Year: 2015

Historical bathymetric charts are a potential resource for better understanding the dynamics of the seafloor and the role of active processes, such as submarine volcanism. The British Admiralty, for example, have been involved in lead line measurements of seafloor depth since the early 1790s. Here, we report on an analysis of historical charts in the region of Santorini volcano, Greece. Repeat lead line surveys in 1848, late 1866, and 1925-1928 as well as multibeam swath bathymetry surveys in 2001 and 2006 have been used to document changes in seafloor depth. These data reveal that the flanks of the Kameni Islands, a dacitic dome complex in the caldera center, have shallowed by up to ∼175 m and deepened by up to ∼80 m since 1848. The largest shallowing occurred between the late 1866 and 1925-1928 surveys and the largest deepening occurred during the 1925-1928 and 2001 and 2006 surveys. The shallowing is attributed to the emplacement of lavas during effusive eruptions in both 1866-1870 and 1925-1928 at rates of up to 0.18 and 0.05 km3 a-1, respectively. The deepening is attributed to a load-induced viscoelastic stress relaxation following the 1866-1870 and 1925-1928 lava eruptions. The elastic thickness and viscosity that best fits the observed deepening are 1.0 km and ∼1016 Pa s, respectively. This parameter pair, which is consistent with the predictions of a shallow magma chamber thermal model, explains both the amplitude and wavelength of the historical bathymetric data and the present day rate of subsidence inferred from InSAR analysis. © 2015. The Authors.

Nandedkar R.H.,ETH Zurich | Ulmer P.,ETH Zurich | Muntener O.,Institute of Earth science
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology | Year: 2014

Differentiation of mantle-derived, hydrous, basaltic magmas is a fundamental process to produce evolved intermediate to SiO2-rich magmas that form the bulk of the middle to shallow continental and island arc crust. This study reports the results of fractional crystallization experiments conducted in a piston cylinder apparatus at 0.7 GPa for hydrous, calc-alkaline to arc tholeiitic magmas. Fractional crystallization was approached by synthesis of starting materials representing the liquid composition of the previous, higher temperature experiment. Temperatures ranged from near-liquidus at 1,170 °C to near-solidus conditions at 700 °C. H2O contents varied from 3.0 to more than 10 wt%. The liquid line of descent covers the entire compositional range from olivine-tholeiite (1,170 °C) to high-silica rhyolite (700 °C) and evolves from metaluminous to peraluminous compositions. The following crystallization sequence has been established: olivine → clinopyroxene → plagioclase, spinel → orthopyroxene, amphibole, titanomagnetite → apatite → quartz, biotite. Anorthite-rich plagioclase and spinel are responsible for a marked increase in SiO2-content (from 51 to 53 wt%) at 1,040 °C. At lower temperatures, fractionation of amphibole, plagioclase and Fe-Ti oxide over a temperature interval of 280 °C drives the SiO2 content continuously from 53 to 78 wt%. Largest crystallization steps were recorded around 1,040 °C and at 700 °C. About 40 % of ultramafic plutonic rocks have to crystallize to generate basaltic-andesitic liquids, and an additional 40 % of amphibole-gabbroic cumulate to produce granitic melts. Andesitic liquids with a liquidus temperature of 1,010 °C only crystallize 50 % over an 280 °C wide range to 730 °C implying that such liquids form mobile crystal mushes (<50 % crystals) in long-lived magmatic systems in the middle crust, allowing for extensive fractionation, assimilation and hybridization with periodic replenishment of more mafic magmas from deeper magma reservoirs. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Vrijmoed J.C.,Institute of Earth science | Vrijmoed J.C.,ETH Zurich | Podladchikov Y.Y.,Institute of Earth science
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology | Year: 2015

Recent advances in metamorphic petrology point out the importance of grain-scale pressure variations in high-temperature metamorphic rocks. Pressure derived from chemical zonation using unconventional geobarometry based on equal chemical potentials fits mechanically feasible pressure variations. Here, a thermodynamic equilibrium method is presented that predicts chemical zoning as a result of pressure variations by Gibbs energy minimization. Equilibrium thermodynamic prediction of the chemical zoning in the case of pressure heterogeneity is done by constrained Gibbs minimization using linear programming techniques. In addition to constraining the system composition, a certain proportion of the system is constrained at a specified pressure. Input pressure variations need to be discretized, and each discrete pressure defines an additional constraint for the minimization. The Gibbs minimization method provides identical results to a geobarometry approach based on chemical potentials, thus validating the inferred pressure gradient. The thermodynamic consistency of the calculation is supported by the similar result obtained from two different approaches. In addition, the method can be used for multi-component, multi-phase systems of which several applications are given. A good fit to natural observations in multi-phase, multi-component systems demonstrates the possibility to explain phase assemblages and zoning by spatial pressure variations at equilibrium as an alternative to pressure variation in time due to disequilibrium. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Oelkers E.H.,University Paul Sabatier | Gislason S.R.,Institute of Earth science | Eiriksdottir E.S.,Institute of Earth science | Jones M.,Institute of Earth science | And 2 more authors.
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2011

A review of the relative masses of continental weathering products transported to the oceans indicates that particulate fluxes dominate dissolved fluxes for most elements. The degree to which this particulate material plays a role in the compositional evolution of seawater depends on its dissolution rate, which appears to be rapid due to its high surface area. Consideration of the results of batch experiments and mineral saturation state calculations suggest that much of the mass dissolved into seawater from particulate material dissolution is rapidly removed by the precipitation of secondary minerals. Although this process limits the degree to which the overall concentration of elements in seawater are affected by the addition of particulate material, the dissolution of isotopically distinct particulate phases may affect the isotopic composition of seawater over remarkably short timescales. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Eiriksdottir E.S.,Institute of Earth science | Gislason S.R.,Institute of Earth science | Oelkers E.H.,University Paul Sabatier
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2011

The rate of chemical denudation is controlled by both temperature and runoff. The relative role of these two factors in the rivers of NE Iceland is determined through the rigorous analysis of their water chemistry over a 5-a period. River catchments are taken to be analogous to laboratory flow reactors; like the fluid in flow reactors, the loss of each dissolved element in river water is the sum of that of the original rainwater plus that added from kinetically controlled dissolution and precipitation reactions. Consideration of the laboratory determined dissolution rate behaviour of basalts and measured water chemistry indicates that the maximum effect of changing temperature on chemical denudation in the NE Icelandic rivers was 5-25% of the total change, whereas that of runoff was 75-95%. The bulk of the increased denudation rates with runoff appear to stem from an increase in reactive surface area for chemical weathering of catchment solids. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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