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Gargiulo P.,Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development | Olla S.,University of Milan | Olla S.,University of Cagliari | Boiti C.,University of Milan | And 4 more authors.
Heart Failure Reviews | Year: 2014

Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a procedure widely used in daily clinical activity to investigate cardiac and pulmonary disorders. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) is the most validated and clinically accepted parameter used to report aerobic capacity in healthy individuals and in different clinical settings. However, peak VO2 is influenced by several factors, whose variability is nowadays particularly evident due to the extensive use of CPET even in very young and very old subgroups of patients. Thus, its diagnostic and prognostic significance may be improved by the use of % of predicted VO2. At present, many sets of normal values are available, making the identification of the most proper max VO2 predicted value a challenging problem. In fact, normal value sets have been obtained fromstudieswhose accuracy was reduced by important limitations, such as small sample size, low grade of heterogeneity of the population enrolled, poor rigorousness of methods, or difficulty in interpreting results. Accordingly, the aim of the present review is threefold: (A) to report some illustrative cases to showhowthe choice of the normal value set can influence the report of CPET; (B) to describe the most known and used reference value sets, highlighting the main characteristics of sample population, the most important methodological aspects, and the major limitations of the studies; (C) to suggest which equation should be used, if any, and to underline its weakness. © Springer Science+Business Media 2013.

Gargiulo P.,Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development | Apostolo A.,Centro Cardiologico Monzino | Perrone-Filardi P.,University of Naples Federico II | Sciomer S.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Rationale: During exercise, heart failure patients (HF) show an out-of-proportion ventilation increase, which in patients with COPD is blunted. When HF and COPD coexist, the ventilatory response to exercise is unpredictable. Objectives: We evaluated a human model of respiratory impairment in 10 COPD-free HF patients and in 10 healthy subjects, tested with a progressive workload exercise with different added dead space. We hypothesized that increased serial dead space upshifts the VE vs. VCO2 relationship and that the VE-axis intercept might be an index of dead space ventilation. Measurements: All participants performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test with 0, 250 and 500 mL of additional dead space. Since DS does not contribute to gas exchange, ventilation relative to dead space is ventilation at VCO2 = 0, i.e. VE-axis intercept. We compared dead space volume, estimated dividing VE-axis intercept by the intercept on respiratory rate axis of the respiratory rate vs. VCO2 relationship with standard method measured DS. Main results: In HF, adding dead space increased VE-axis intercept (+0 mL = 4.98±1.63 L; +250 mL = 9.69±2.91 L; +500 mL = 13.26±3.18 L; p<0.001) and upshifted the VE vs.VCO2 relationship, with a minor slope rise (+0 mL= 27±4 L; +250 = 28±5; +500 = 29±4; p<0.05). In healthy, adding dead space increased VE-axis intercept (+0 mL = 4.9±1.4 L; +250 = 9.3±2.4; +500 = 13.1±3.04; p<0.001) without slope changes. Measured and estimated dead space volumes were similar both in HF and healthy subjects. Conclusions: VE-axis intercept is related to dead space ventilation and dead space volume can be non-invasively estimated. © 2014 Gargiulo et al.

Cuocolo A.,University of Naples Federico II | Cuocolo A.,National Research Council Italy | Petretta M.,University of Naples Federico II | Acampa W.,National Research Council Italy | De Falco T.,Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development
Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging | Year: 2010

Cardiac imaging with gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) allows the evaluation of myocardial perfusion and analysis of global and regional left ventricular function. Gated SPECT is a validated and established diagnostic and prognostic method for evaluation of patients with suspected and known coronary artery disease. Significant improvements in software and gamma camera technology in SPECT cardiac imaging have been obtained. New detectors open a scenario for faster imaging with lower radiation dose to the patient. Appropriate use of the SPECT imaging is regulated by evidence-based guidelines and appropriateness criteria as well as by third-party payers in an effort to restrain the unsustainable growth of imaging testing recently observed. Future of cardiac SPECT imaging will be driven by societal demand for cost effective, accurate, and safe testing, which will improve meaningfully patients' management and outcomes.

De Pascale M.R.,The Second University of Naples | Sommese L.,The Second University of Naples | Casamassimi A.,The Second University of Naples | Napoli C.,The Second University of Naples | Napoli C.,Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development
Transfusion Medicine Reviews | Year: 2015

Prior preclinical and clinical studies support the use of platelet-derived products for the treatment of soft and hard tissue lesions. These regenerative effects are controlled by autocrine and paracrine biomolecules including growth factors and cytokines contained in platelet alpha granules. Each growth factor is involved in a phase of the healing process, such as inflammation, collagen synthesis, tissue granulation, and angiogenesis collectively promoting tissue restitution. Platelet derivatives have been prepared as platelet-rich plasma, platelet gel, platelet-rich fibrin, and platelet eye drops. These products vary in their structure, growth factors, composition, and cytokine concentrations. Here, we review the current use of platelet-derived biological products focusing on the rationale for their use and the main requirements for their preparation. Variation in the apparent therapeutic efficacy may have resulted from a lack of reproducible, standardized protocols for preparation. Despite several individual studies showing favorable treatment effects, some randomized controlled trials as well as meta-analyses have found no constant clinical benefit from the application of platelet-derived products for prevention of tissue lesions. Recently, 3 published studies in dentistry showed an improvement in bone density. Seven published studies showed positive results in joint regeneration. Five published studies demonstrated an improvement in the wound healing, and an improvement of eye epithelial healing was observed in 2 reports. Currently, at least 14 ongoing clinical trials in phase 3 or 4 have been designed with large groups of treated patients (n > 100). Because the rationale of the therapy with platelet-derived compounds is still debated, a definitive insight can be acquired only when these large randomized trials will be completed. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Petretta M.,University of Naples Federico II | Cuocolo A.,University of Naples Federico II | Cuocolo A.,Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging | Year: 2012

Risk stratification is an increasingly important tool for the management of patients with different diseases and also for decision making in subjects not yet with overt disease but who are at risk of disease in the short or long term or during their lifetime. Careful risk assessment in the individual patient, based on clinical, laboratory and imaging data, can be helpful for making decisions about treatment or other prevention strategies. As regards cardiovascular disease, many models have been suggested and are available for the prediction of diagnosis and prognosis and there are several algorithms for risk prediction. However, current risk screening methods are not perfect. This review evaluates relative strengths and limitations of traditional and more recent methods for assessing the performance of prediction models. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012.

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