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Schmitz H.,Institute of Development Studies IDS | Tuan D.A.,Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry VCCI | Hang P.T.T.,VCCI | Mcculloch N.,Oxford Policy Management
Development Policy Review

Allowing provinces to find their own way forward was central to Vietnam's progress in institutional and economic development. This article examines who drives this process of economic reform and finds that, in those provinces making the most progress, the private sector played an important role, not against, but with government. Both national and foreign enterprises played a role, but small enterprises tended to be marginalised. Some of the best insights come from comparing provinces and observing how different alignments of interest influenced the reform process. © 2015 Overseas Development Institute. Source

Glover D.,Institute of Development Studies IDS | Sumberg J.,Institute of Development Studies IDS | Andersson J.A.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Outlook on Agriculture

The notion of adoption is central to efforts to measure technological change in African agriculture, and plays an important role in the evaluation of return on investment in agricultural research and technology development. However, the adoption concept, as it is commonly used in both the literature and development research practice, is seriously flawed and leads to inaccurate and misleading conclusions. The authors outline a design specification for a replacement concept that would provide a better basis for robust empirical research on the economic, social and environmental impacts of investment in agricultural technology development and promotion. They propose that this new concept can contribute to a better and more nuanced understanding of the impacts of technology development interventions. Source

Fairhead J.,University of Sussex | Leach M.,Institute of Development Studies IDS | Scoones I.,Institute of Development Studies IDS
Journal of Peasant Studies

Across the world, 'green grabbing' - the appropriation of land and resources for environmental ends - is an emerging process of deep and growing significance. The vigorous debate on 'land grabbing' already highlights instances where 'green' credentials are called upon to justify appropriations of land for food or fuel - as where large tracts of land are acquired not just for 'more efficient farming' or 'food security', but also to 'alleviate pressure on forests'. In other cases, however, environmental green agendas are the core drivers and goals of grabs - whether linked to biodiversity conservation, biocarbon sequestration, biofuels, ecosystem services, ecotourism or 'offsets' related to any and all of these. In some cases these involve the wholesale alienation of land, and in others the restructuring of rules and authority in the access, use and management of resources that may have profoundly alienating effects. Green grabbing builds on well-known histories of colonial and neo-colonial resource alienation in the name of the environment - whether for parks, forest reserves or to halt assumed destructive local practices. Yet it involves novel forms of valuation, commodification and markets for pieces and aspects of nature, and an extraordinary new range of actors and alliances - as pension funds and venture capitalists, commodity traders and consultants, GIS service providers and business entrepreneurs, ecotourism companies and the military, green activists and anxious consumers among others find once-unlikely common interests. This collection draws new theorisation together with cases from African, Asian and Latin American settings, and links critical studies of nature with critical agrarian studies, to ask: To what extent and in what ways do 'green grabs' constitute new forms of appropriation of nature? How and when do circulations of green capital become manifest in actual appropriations on the ground - through what political and discursive dynamics? What are the implications for ecologies, landscapes and livelihoods? And who is gaining and who is losing - how are agrarian social relations, rights and authority being restructured, and in whose interests?. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

te Lintelo D.J.H.,Institute of Development Studies IDS | Lakshman R.W.D.,Institute of Development Studies IDS
World Development

As political commitment is an essential ingredient for elevating food and nutrition security onto policy agendas, commitment metrics have proliferated. Many conflate government commitment to fight hunger with combating undernutrition. We test the hypothesis that commitment to hunger reduction is empirically different from commitment to reducing undernutrition through expert surveys in five high-burden countries: Bangladesh, Malawi, Nepal, Tanzania, and Zambia. Our findings confirm the hypothesis. We conclude that sensitive commitment metrics are needed to guide government and donor policies and programmatic action. Without, historically inadequate prioritization of non-food aspects of malnutrition may persist to imperil achieving global nutrition targets. © 2015 The Authors. Source

Urban F.,Institute of Development Studies IDS | Mitchell T.,Overseas Development Institute (ODI) | Villanueva P.S.,Institute of Development Studies IDS
Climate and Development

Effectively managing disaster risks is a critical tool for adapting to the impacts of climate change. However, climate change mitigation and low-carbon development have often been overlooked in disaster risk management (DRM) research, policy and practice. This article explores the links between DRM and low-carbon development and thereby sheds light on a new and emerging research and development agenda. Taking carbon considerations into account for DRM and post-disaster reconstruction can contribute to laying the foundations for low-carbon development and the benefits it can bring. It can also provide an opportunity to combine adaptation and mitigation efforts. The article elaborates the carbon implications of DRM interventions and post-disaster reconstruction practices, drawing on case studies from flood risk reduction, coastal protection, drought risk reduction, post-disaster housing and energy supply reconstruction. Finally, the article makes suggestions about how the carbon implications of DRM measures could be accounted for in a coherent manner. Suggestions include calculating the carbon emissions from DRM and post-disaster interventions as part of globally standardized environmental impact assessments and improving the linkages between ministries of environment, energy and climate, and those ministries that deal with disasters. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source

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