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Falmer, United Kingdom

Chibuye M.,Institute of Development Studies
Environment and Urbanization | Year: 2014

This paper reviews and assesses how urban poverty in Zambia is defined and measured by the government, using data from the Jesuit Centre for Theological Reflection (JCTR). It shows the often dramatic differences in the scale and nature of urban poverty, depending on what poverty measurements are chosen and applied. Applying the government poverty line, which takes no account of differences in costs between rural and urban areas, shows the incidence of urban poverty falling from 49 per cent in 1991 to 27.5 per cent in 2010; but a food basket based on what urban households eat is twice the cost of the food basket used in the official poverty line. In addition, as the paper describes, what urban poor households pay for food is often particularly high as they cannot buy in bulk. The official poverty line's allowance for housing costs is based on what low-income groups spend on housing, not on the costs of the cheapest reasonable quality accommodation. The JCTR estimate for the cost of essential non-food needs is twice that in the official poverty line, and the JCTR review of house prices shows that the cost of "adequate" housing in cities is far higher than the allowance for housing in poverty lines. The paper also discusses other reasons why official poverty lines understate urban poverty, including neglecting the costs low-income groups face for transport, health care and keeping their children in school. © 2014 International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). Source

Naess L.O.,Institute of Development Studies
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change | Year: 2013

Evidence from recent research suggests that local knowledge may contribute to adaptation to climate change in a number of ways. At the same time, there are concerns over its relevance for future adaptation amidst other challenges. This article aims to shed light on some of the key potentials and challenges for the application of local knowledge for adaptation, drawing on recent studies as well as findings from semi-arid Tanzania. This article illustrates how the role of local knowledge at the local level is determined by interaction between informal and formal institutions at the local level. It suggests that assessments of the role of local knowledge for adaptation need to give more consideration to local power relations and the interaction with government strategies, while also addressing structural constraints to the use of local knowledge across scales. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.. Source

Haddad L.,Institute of Development Studies
Food Policy | Year: 2013

How should the nutrition community be positioning nutrition within the post-2015 MDG debate? This paper represents a snapshot review of ongoing nutrition challenges, the contours of the post-MDG debate, and the views of 26 experts in nutrition and the MDGs. The paper draws out post 2015 options, develops criteria for ranking the options, applies the criteria and makes a recommendation. While a nutrition goal (the "vertical" option) that covers all countries and addresses both under and overweight and obesity may well be most effective for galvanizing commitment for nutrition and for guiding action, it does not seem politically feasible. A strong position for nutrition is to be located with hunger in a "vertical" goal with an additional "horizontal" goal which places nutrition-specific indicators alongside nutrition-relevant indicators in new goal buckets, with placement driven by the UNICEF conceptual framework for undernutrition. The "minimalist" option of simply replacing the flawed underweight indicator with the superior stunting indicator in the poverty goal will not galvanize any constituency and should be rejected. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Haddad L.,Institute of Development Studies
Food and Nutrition Bulletin | Year: 2013

Background. Agriculture has the potential to have a bigger impact on nutrition status than it currently does. The pathways between agriculture and nutrition are well known. Yet the evidence on how to increase the impact of agriculture on nutrition is weak. Objective. To outline some of the possible reasons for the weak evidentiary link between agriculture and income and to highlight some approaches to incentivizing agriculture to give nutrition a greater priority. Methods. A review of literature reviews and other studies. Results. Agriculture does not have a strong poverty and nutrition impact culture, the statistical links between aggregate agriculture and nutrition data are weak, literature reviews to date have not been sufficiently clear on the quality of evidence admitted, and the evidence for the impact of biofortification on nutrition status is positive, but small. Some tools are proposed and described that may be helpful in raising the profile of nutrition outcomes, building nutrition outcomes into impact assessments of agriculture, measuring the commitment to undernutrition reduction,and helping to prioritize nutrition-relevant actions within agriculture. Leadership in agriculture and nutrition is also an understudied issue. Conclusions. Agriculture has a vast potential to increase its impact on nutrition outcomes. We don't know if this potential is being fully realized as yet. I suspect it is not. Tools that help promote the visibility of nutrition within agriculture and the accountability of agriculture toward nutrition can possibly contribute to moving "from Nutrition Plus to Nutrition Driven" agriculture. © 2013, The United Nations University. Source

Technology transfer is crucial to reduce the carbon intensity of developing countries. Enabling frameworks need to be in place to allow foreign technologies to flow, to be absorbed and to bring about technological change in the recipient country. This paper contributes to identifying these enabling factors by analysing 10 case studies of low-carbon technology transfer processes based in Chile. Our findings show the importance of strong economic and institutional fundamentals, a sound knowledge base, a sizable and stable demand and a functioning local industry. Policy recommendations are derived to improve the penetration of foreign low-carbon technologies in developing countries, focusing on the particularities of small and medium emerging economies. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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