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Falmer, United Kingdom

Naess L.O.,Institute of Development Studies
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change | Year: 2013

Evidence from recent research suggests that local knowledge may contribute to adaptation to climate change in a number of ways. At the same time, there are concerns over its relevance for future adaptation amidst other challenges. This article aims to shed light on some of the key potentials and challenges for the application of local knowledge for adaptation, drawing on recent studies as well as findings from semi-arid Tanzania. This article illustrates how the role of local knowledge at the local level is determined by interaction between informal and formal institutions at the local level. It suggests that assessments of the role of local knowledge for adaptation need to give more consideration to local power relations and the interaction with government strategies, while also addressing structural constraints to the use of local knowledge across scales. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

Haddad L.,Institute of Development Studies
Food Policy | Year: 2013

How should the nutrition community be positioning nutrition within the post-2015 MDG debate? This paper represents a snapshot review of ongoing nutrition challenges, the contours of the post-MDG debate, and the views of 26 experts in nutrition and the MDGs. The paper draws out post 2015 options, develops criteria for ranking the options, applies the criteria and makes a recommendation. While a nutrition goal (the "vertical" option) that covers all countries and addresses both under and overweight and obesity may well be most effective for galvanizing commitment for nutrition and for guiding action, it does not seem politically feasible. A strong position for nutrition is to be located with hunger in a "vertical" goal with an additional "horizontal" goal which places nutrition-specific indicators alongside nutrition-relevant indicators in new goal buckets, with placement driven by the UNICEF conceptual framework for undernutrition. The "minimalist" option of simply replacing the flawed underweight indicator with the superior stunting indicator in the poverty goal will not galvanize any constituency and should be rejected. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Haddad L.,Institute of Development Studies
Food and Nutrition Bulletin | Year: 2013

Background. Agriculture has the potential to have a bigger impact on nutrition status than it currently does. The pathways between agriculture and nutrition are well known. Yet the evidence on how to increase the impact of agriculture on nutrition is weak. Objective. To outline some of the possible reasons for the weak evidentiary link between agriculture and income and to highlight some approaches to incentivizing agriculture to give nutrition a greater priority. Methods. A review of literature reviews and other studies. Results. Agriculture does not have a strong poverty and nutrition impact culture, the statistical links between aggregate agriculture and nutrition data are weak, literature reviews to date have not been sufficiently clear on the quality of evidence admitted, and the evidence for the impact of biofortification on nutrition status is positive, but small. Some tools are proposed and described that may be helpful in raising the profile of nutrition outcomes, building nutrition outcomes into impact assessments of agriculture, measuring the commitment to undernutrition reduction,and helping to prioritize nutrition-relevant actions within agriculture. Leadership in agriculture and nutrition is also an understudied issue. Conclusions. Agriculture has a vast potential to increase its impact on nutrition outcomes. We don't know if this potential is being fully realized as yet. I suspect it is not. Tools that help promote the visibility of nutrition within agriculture and the accountability of agriculture toward nutrition can possibly contribute to moving "from Nutrition Plus to Nutrition Driven" agriculture. © 2013, The United Nations University.

Technology transfer is crucial to reduce the carbon intensity of developing countries. Enabling frameworks need to be in place to allow foreign technologies to flow, to be absorbed and to bring about technological change in the recipient country. This paper contributes to identifying these enabling factors by analysing 10 case studies of low-carbon technology transfer processes based in Chile. Our findings show the importance of strong economic and institutional fundamentals, a sound knowledge base, a sizable and stable demand and a functioning local industry. Policy recommendations are derived to improve the penetration of foreign low-carbon technologies in developing countries, focusing on the particularities of small and medium emerging economies. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

This article looks at the interrelationship between water and food security. More specifically, it examines the resilience and sustainability of water and food systems to shocks and stresses linked to different levels and intensity of conflict, global trade and climate change. The article makes four points: (1) that resource scarcity as a driver of conflict is inconclusive especially at regional and national levels (2) most insecurities surrounding water and food are explained by political power, social and gender relations; (3) global trade has enabled national food and water security, but that is now threatened by increasing food prices, food sovereignty movements and land 'grabbing' (4) and that water and food security will face major challenges under conditions of climate change. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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