Institute of Developing Economies


Institute of Developing Economies

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Lei L.,Institute of Developing Economies | Shimokawa S.,Waseda University
China Economic Review | Year: 2017

Since 2015, the Chinese government has started actively promoting the Chinese Dietary Guidelines (CDGs), which target not only health but also sustainable food consumption and production. This paper first illustrates the deviations of Chinese people's diets from the CDGs; it then explores how reducing the deviations can influence environmental sustainability (i.e., greenhouse gas emission, energy use, and blue water footprint), and lastly, it investigates key driving factors behind the deviations. Our results demonstrate that the overall impact of reducing the deviations (i.e., reducing meat/egg consumption and increasing fruit/vegetable/dairy consumption) can improve both diet quality and environmental sustainability. The results also imply that reducing cereal and fruit prices may facilitate achievement of both the CDGs' targets and environmental sustainability by reducing meat consumption and increasing fruit consumption. If the recommendation of the CDGs is followed with additional environmental costs, it will be important to discuss how to minimize them. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Kang B.,Institute of Developing Economies | Tarasconi G.,Bocconi University
World Patent Information | Year: 2016

This study provides a comprehensive summary of and guidance for using the EPO Worldwide Patent Statistical Database (PATSTAT), one of the most widely used patent databases for researchers. We highlight the three most important issues that PATSTAT users must consider when performing patent data analyses and suggest ways to deal with those issues. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Oda H.,Ritsumeikan University | Tsujita Y.,Institute of Developing Economies
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

This paper explores intra-state disparity in access to electricity and examines the determinants of electrification at the village level in Bihar, one of the underdeveloped states in India. Our field survey of 80 villages in 5 districts conducted in 2008-09 found that 48 villages (60%) are electrified when using the definition of electrification that a village is electrified if any one household in the village is connected to electricity. In the processes of electrification, approximately 40% of villages have been electrified in recent years. The econometric analyses demonstrate that location is the most important determinant of a village's electricity connection. Another important finding is that with the rapid progress of rural electrification under the recent government program and the tendency to connect the villages that are easily accessible, the collective bargaining power of the village, which used to significantly affect the process of electrification, has lost influence. This adversely affects remote villages. In order to extend electricity supplies to remote and geographically disadvantaged villages, the government needs to consider other options for sustainable electricity supply, such as decentralized distribution of electricity rather than the conventional connection through the national/local grids. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Iizuka T.,University of Tokyo | Kubo K.,Institute of Developing Economies
Health Economics, Policy and Law | Year: 2011

Historically, brand-name pharmaceuticals have enjoyed long periods of market exclusivity in Japan, given the limited use of generics after patent expiration. To improve the efficiency of the health-care system, however, the government has recently implemented various policies aimed at increasing generic substitution. Although this has created expectations that the Japanese generic drug market may finally take off, to date, generic usage has increased only modestly. After reviewing the incentives of key market participants to choose generics, we argue that previous government policies did not provide proper incentives for pharmacies to boost generic substitution. We offer some recommendations that may help to increase generic usage. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

Isono I.,Institute of Developing Economies | Kumagai S.,Institute of Developing Economies
Asian Economic Policy Review | Year: 2016

We compare the prioritized projects of the Master Plan on ASEAN Connectivity (MPAC) and the Comprehensive Asia Development Plan (CADP) by utilizing the Institute of Developing Economies/Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia Geographical Simulation Model. The prioritized projects of the MPAC mainly focus on specific hard or soft infrastructure projects connecting one remote area of an ASEAN member state to another and thus fail to capture the full potential of the infrastructure because of neglected important links within a state. On the other hand, the CADP emphasizes the importance of economic corridors or linkages between a large cluster and another cluster. Our simulation analysis shows that CADP projects will result in an addition to gross domestic product (GDP) of $US 1544bn over the period from 2021 to 2030 (in 2010 dollars) or an impact on ASEAN countries that is 12 times larger than MPAC projects. The results strongly suggest that the CADP projects should be adopted and implemented to fully realize the potential economic growth of the ASEAN countries. Moreover, the CADP will contribute more to narrowing the development gaps among the ASEAN countries than MPAC prioritized projects. © 2016 Japan Center for Economic Research

Given the recognized yield-enhancing potential of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), its low adoption and high discontinuance rates in some locales are puzzling. Combining experimental measures of risk and ambiguity aversion with household-level and plot-level panel data collected in rural Indonesia, this study empirically explores factors shaping SRI's adoption and discontinuance. Employing multivariate and Heckman probit models to control unobserved heterogeneities, we find that farmers' risk aversion significantly reduces their likelihood of using all individual SRI practices. However, once the effects of risk aversion on the use of SRI in the previous year are statistically controlled, risk aversion does not significantly explain farmers' subsequent decisions to continue or discontinue SRI practices. Farmers' ambiguity preferences play no significant role in decisions to use most practices, except alternate wetting and drying, which requires proper coordination of irrigation among neighboring farmers and thus amplifies the uncertainty of effective implementation. The results also show that access to irrigation is a significant factor in the use of SRI and its continuance. Moreover, as SRI requires greater input of labor and therefore curtails time for alternative household activities, including off-farm work, family composition is a significant factor determining its adoption and continuing use. Although these findings are not necessarily generalizable, our study expands the existing knowledge of factors underlying SRI's slow diffusion. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht and International Society for Plant Pathology.

Oka N.,Institute of Developing Economies
Central Asian Survey | Year: 2015

In Soviet times, useful contacts had more value than money, and getting things done through unofficial channels of personal relations was a socially accepted norm. What changes have market reforms brought to Kazakhstan in these areas? This article details the use of informal payments and connections in Almaty and examines why non-monetary exchange of favours is increasingly being replaced by the immediate exchange of cash for assistance. This article argues that urban residents are becoming more inclined to quickly return a favour through cash and evade the lengthy exchanges involved in building reciprocal relationships, a practice widely accepted during Soviet times. This article also focuses on the importance of personal contacts in monetized exchange and demonstrates that cash payment is not a least preferred strategy for those who lack necessary networks. Urban residents in Kazakhstan in fact actively mobilize their personal networks to effectively and securely exchange monetary rewards. © 2015 © 2015 Southseries Inc.

Sakamoto T.,Institute of Developing Economies
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Dryland pastoralism has long attracted considerable attention from researchers in diverse fields. However, rigorous formal study is made difficult by the high level of mobility of pastoralists as well as by the sizable spatio-temporal variability of their environment. This article presents a new computational approach for studying mobile pastoralism that overcomes these issues. Combining multi-temporal satellite images and agent-based modeling allows a comprehensive examination of pastoral resource access over a realistic dryland landscape with unpredictable ecological dynamics. The article demonstrates the analytical potential of this approach through its application to mobile pastoralism in northeast Nigeria. Employing more than 100 satellite images of the area, extensive simulations are conducted under a wide array of circumstances, including different land-use constraints. The simulation results reveal complex dependencies of pastoral resource access on these circumstances along with persistent patterns of seasonal land use observed at the macro level. © 2016 Takuto Sakamoto. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Mitra A.,Institute of Economic Growth | Tsujita Y.,Institute of Developing Economies
Habitat International | Year: 2016

This study based on two primary surveys of the same households in two different years (2007/08 and 2012) assesses the extent of inter-temporal change in income of the individual workers and makes an attempt to identify important correlates of upward mobility in alternate econometric models, envisaging endogeneity problem. The findings are indicative of a rise in the income of workers across a sizeable percentage of households though many of them remained below the poverty line notwithstanding this increase. Inadequate education reduces the probability of upward mobility while education above a threshold level raises it. Savings are crucial for upward mobility impinging on the importance of asset creation. Views that entail neighbourhood spill-over effects also received validation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Hashiguchi Y.,Institute of Developing Economies | Tanaka K.,Institute of Developing Economies
Papers in Regional Science | Year: 2015

This paper estimates the impact of industrial agglomeration on firm-level productivity in Chinese manufacturing sectors. To account for spatial autocorrelation across regions, we formulate a hierarchical spatial model and use a Bayesian instrumental-variable approach. We find that agglomeration of the same industry (i.e., localization) has a productivity-boosting effect, but agglomeration of urban population (i.e., urbanization) has no such effect. In addition, the localization effect increases with the educational levels of employees and the share of intermediate inputs in gross output. These results may suggest that agglomeration externalities occur through knowledge spillovers and input sharing among firms producing similar manufactures. © 2014 The Author(s). Papers in Regional Science © 2014 RSAI

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