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Kang B.,Institute of Developing Economies | Tarasconi G.,Bocconi University
World Patent Information | Year: 2016

This study provides a comprehensive summary of and guidance for using the EPO Worldwide Patent Statistical Database (PATSTAT), one of the most widely used patent databases for researchers. We highlight the three most important issues that PATSTAT users must consider when performing patent data analyses and suggest ways to deal with those issues. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Given the recognized yield-enhancing potential of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), its low adoption and high discontinuance rates in some locales are puzzling. Combining experimental measures of risk and ambiguity aversion with household-level and plot-level panel data collected in rural Indonesia, this study empirically explores factors shaping SRI's adoption and discontinuance. Employing multivariate and Heckman probit models to control unobserved heterogeneities, we find that farmers' risk aversion significantly reduces their likelihood of using all individual SRI practices. However, once the effects of risk aversion on the use of SRI in the previous year are statistically controlled, risk aversion does not significantly explain farmers' subsequent decisions to continue or discontinue SRI practices. Farmers' ambiguity preferences play no significant role in decisions to use most practices, except alternate wetting and drying, which requires proper coordination of irrigation among neighboring farmers and thus amplifies the uncertainty of effective implementation. The results also show that access to irrigation is a significant factor in the use of SRI and its continuance. Moreover, as SRI requires greater input of labor and therefore curtails time for alternative household activities, including off-farm work, family composition is a significant factor determining its adoption and continuing use. Although these findings are not necessarily generalizable, our study expands the existing knowledge of factors underlying SRI's slow diffusion. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht and International Society for Plant Pathology.

Mitra A.,Institute of Economic Growth | Tsujita Y.,Institute of Developing Economies
Habitat International | Year: 2016

This study based on two primary surveys of the same households in two different years (2007/08 and 2012) assesses the extent of inter-temporal change in income of the individual workers and makes an attempt to identify important correlates of upward mobility in alternate econometric models, envisaging endogeneity problem. The findings are indicative of a rise in the income of workers across a sizeable percentage of households though many of them remained below the poverty line notwithstanding this increase. Inadequate education reduces the probability of upward mobility while education above a threshold level raises it. Savings are crucial for upward mobility impinging on the importance of asset creation. Views that entail neighbourhood spill-over effects also received validation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Kubo K.,Institute of Developing Economies | Ramaswami B.,Indian Statistical Institute
Asian Development Review | Year: 2016

In the first decade of thismillennium, rising food prices returned as a concern for policy makers, especially in developing economies. This paper examines how supply shocks, both domestic and foreign, impacted imports and consumption in the world rice market between 1960 and 2010. Such an investigation is important in assessing the role of trade in compensating for domestic shocks. If shortages lead economies to impose trade restrictions, then trade may not be allowed to play an important role in stabilizing consumption. The existing literature has highlighted the importance of these policy shocks in the world rice market and how they have worked to increase the volatility of prices and trade flows. Although trade cannot be expected to play a strong role when the major producing and consuming economies are simultaneously hit by negative yield shocks, such a scenario has occurred in only about 3% of all observed cases. We also find that consumption fails to stabilize even when domestic shocks are negative and foreign shocks are positive; however, imports do peak. Thus, while trade does help in coping with domestic risks, it is unable to achieve full risk sharing. Therefore, no matter the nature of foreign shocks, the principal concern is to stabilize consumptionwhen an economy is hit by negative domestic yield shocks. The frequency of such shocks is about 12% in all observed cases, highlighting the importance of domestic responses. We find that domestic rice stocks have been important in stabilizing consumption. The reliance on domestic policies has, in turn, kept the rice market thin. © 2016 Asian Development Bank and Asian Development Bank Institute.

Oda H.,Ritsumeikan University | Tsujita Y.,Institute of Developing Economies
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

This paper explores intra-state disparity in access to electricity and examines the determinants of electrification at the village level in Bihar, one of the underdeveloped states in India. Our field survey of 80 villages in 5 districts conducted in 2008-09 found that 48 villages (60%) are electrified when using the definition of electrification that a village is electrified if any one household in the village is connected to electricity. In the processes of electrification, approximately 40% of villages have been electrified in recent years. The econometric analyses demonstrate that location is the most important determinant of a village's electricity connection. Another important finding is that with the rapid progress of rural electrification under the recent government program and the tendency to connect the villages that are easily accessible, the collective bargaining power of the village, which used to significantly affect the process of electrification, has lost influence. This adversely affects remote villages. In order to extend electricity supplies to remote and geographically disadvantaged villages, the government needs to consider other options for sustainable electricity supply, such as decentralized distribution of electricity rather than the conventional connection through the national/local grids. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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