Institute of Desert and Meteorology

Urunchi, China

Institute of Desert and Meteorology

Urunchi, China

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Yang Y.,Xinjiang Normal University | Chen Y.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Wang M.,Institute of Desert and Meteorology | Sun H.,Xinjiang Normal University
Theoretical and Applied Climatology | Year: 2016

We examined the changes in streamflow on the northern slopes of the Tianshan Mountains in northern Xinjiang, China, over two time scales: the past 500 years, based on dendrochronology data; and the past 50 years, based on streamflow data from hydrological stations. The method of artificial neural networks built from the data of the 50-year period was used to reconstruct the streamflow of the 500-year period. The results indicate that streamflow has undergone seven high-flow periods and four low-flow periods during the past 500 years. To identify possible transition points in the streamflow, we applied the Mann–Kendall and running T tests to the 50- and 500-year periods, respectively. During the past 500 years, streamflow has changed significantly from low to high flow about three to four times, and from high to low flow about three to five times. Over the recent 50 years, there have been three phases of variation in river runoff, and the most distinct transition of streamflow occurred in 1996. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Wien


Yang Y.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Yang Y.,Xinjiang Normal University | Yang Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Chen Y.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | And 3 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Climatology | Year: 2012

We examined climate variability at two timescales for northern Xinjiang, China: one is of the past 500 years using dendrochronology data and the other is of the past 50 years using meteorological station data. The regression models built from the 50-year period were used to reconstruct the climate of the 500-year period. The results indicate that climate underwent many alternating warm-cold and wet-dry periods in the past 500 years. For the 50-year period, we applied the Mann-Kendall jump test to data from 48 meteorological stations to identify possible transition points of temperature and precipitation. For this period, we also analyzed the impacts of latitude, altitude, slope aspect, and human activities on climate variability, aiming to recognize major factors that influence regional climate variability. The results show a warming and wetting trend in the recent 50 years in northern Xinjiang. We determined that natural pattern variability is dominant in the long-term climate variability in the region, but human impacts are non-negligible in the past 50 years. Regional climate variability may be associated with or driven by latitude, altitude, ecosystems, topography, and human activities. The study provides an empirical evidence of the unique regional characteristics of inland river basin in an arid area over the global climate change background. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Huang J.,Institute of Desert and Meteorology | Huang J.,Central Asian Research Center for Atmospheric science
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2016

Helicoverpa armigera causes serious damage to most crops around the world. However, the impacts of snow thickness on the H. armigera overwintering pupae are little known. A field experiment was employed in 2012–2015 at Urumqi, China. At soil depths of 5, 10, and 15 cm, overwintering pupae were embedded with four treatments: no snow cover (NSC), snow cover (SC), increasing snow thickness to 1.5 times the thickness of SC (ISSC-1), and to two times the thickness of SC (ISSC-2). Results suggested that snow cover and increasing snow thickness both significantly increased soil temperatures, which helped to decrease the mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP) of H. armigera. However, the MOP did not always decrease with increases in snow thickness. The MOPs in NSC and ISSC-1 were the highest and the lowest, respectively, though ISSC-2 had much thicker snow thickness than ISSC-1. A maximum snow thickness of 60 cm might lead to the lowest MOP. The longer the snow cover duration (SCD) at a soil depth of 10 cm in March and April was, the higher the MOP was. A thicker snow cover layer led to a higher soil moisture content (SMC) and a lower diurnal soil temperature range (DSTR). The highest and the lowest MOP were at a depth of 15 and 10 cm, respectively. The SMC at the depths of 10 and 15 cm had significant effects on MOP. A lower accumulated temperature (≤0 °C) led to a higher MOP. The DSTR in March of approximately 4.5 °C might cause the lowest MOP. The largest influence factor for the MOPs at depths of 5 and 10 cm and the combined data were the SCDs during the whole experimental period, and for the MOPs at a depth of 15 cm was the soil temperature in November. © 2016 ISB


Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the most damaging insect pests in the world. However, little is known about the effects of snow cover and soil temperature on the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. A field experiment was conducted from November 2, 2012 to April 24, 2013 at the agrometeorological experimental station in Wulanwusu, China. Overwintering pupae were embedded into the soil at depths of 5, 10, and 15 cm in the following four treatments: without snow cover, snow cover, and increased temperatures from 600 and 1200 W infrared lights. The results showed that snow cover and rising temperatures could all markedly increase soil temperatures, which was helpful in improving the survival of the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. The mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP) at a depth of 15 cm was the highest, and the MOP at a depth of 5 cm followed. The lower accumulated temperature (≤0 °C) (AT ≤ °C) led to the higher MOP, and the lower diurnal soil temperature range (DSTR) likely led to the lower MOP. After snowmelt, the MOPs at the depths of 5 and 10 cm increased as the soil temperature increased, especially in April. The AT of the soil (≤0 °C) was the factor with the strongest effect on MOP. The soil moisture content was not a major factor affecting the MOP in this semiarid region because precipitation was 45 mm over the entire experimental period. With climate warming, the MOP will likely decrease, and the overwintering boundary air temperatures of H. armigera should be expanded due to higher soil temperatures and increased snow cover. © 2015 ISB


Huang J.,Institute of Desert and Meteorology
International Journal of Plant Production | Year: 2015

This study was conducted to determine whether selecting an optimum sowing date could improve yield. The experiment consisted of sowing a film-covered, drip-irrigated cotton field on four sowing dates from April to May in 2011-2012 at the Agrometeorological Experimental Station of Wulanwusu, which was in an arid region of north-western China. Late sowing dates produced less yield and water-use efficiency than did the normal sowing dates. The yield increased with the increases of mean diurnal temperature range (DTR) from full bloom to maturity, mean temperature and sunshine hours (SH) during the whole growing season (WGS), accumulated temperature (AT) and days from squaring to anthesis and mean temperature during the reproductive growth stage. However, the main effect factors of meteorological parameters were AT from squaring to anthesis, mean temperature during the WGS and AT from sowing to emergence. The main effect factors of yield component were boll number per plant, gin turnout and boll weight. Boll number per plant suffered from mean DTR from boll setting to maturity and SH during the WGS. Gin turnout was affected by mean temperature during the WGS and mean DTR from boll setting to maturity. Sowing date, year and their interactions all significantly affected the yield. Sowing date was an important factor affecting the yield and reproductive duration. With climate change, an earlier planting date might be an efficient method of increasing yield. © 2015, Gorgan Univ Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. All rights reserved.


Huang J.,Institute of Desert and Meteorology | Ji F.,Agrometeorological Experimental Station of Wulanwusu
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2015

Understanding the effects of climatic change on phenological phases of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in oasis of arid regions may help optimize management schemes to increase productivity. This study assessed the impacts of climatic changes on the phenological phases and productivity of spring cotton. The results showed that climatic warming led the dates of sowing seed, seeding emergence, three-leaf, five-leaf, budding, anthesis, full bloom, cleft boll, boll-opening, boll-opening filling, and stop-growing become earlier by 24.42, 26.19, 24.75, 23.28, 22.62, 15.75, 14.58, 5.37, 2.85, 8.04, and 2.16 days during the period of 1981–2010, respectively. The growth period lengths from sowing seed to seeding emergence and from boll-opening to boll-opening filling were shortened by 1.76 and 5.19 days, respectively. The other growth period lengths were prolonged by 2–9.71 days. The whole growth period length was prolonged by 22.26 days. The stop-growing date was delayed by 2.49–3.46 days for every 1 °C rise in minimum, maximum, and mean temperatures; however, other development dates emerged earlier by 2.17–4.76 days. Rising temperatures during the stage from seeding emergence to three-leaf reduced seed cotton yields. However, rising temperatures increased seed cotton yields in the two stages from anthesis to cleft boll and from boll-opening filling to the stop-growing. Increasing accumulated temperatures (AT) had different impacts on different development stages. During the vegetative phase, rising AT led to reduced seed cotton yields, but rising AT during reproductive stage increased seed cotton yields. In conclusion, climatic warming helpfully obtained more seed cotton yields in oasis of arid regions in northwest China. Changing the sowing date is another way to enhance yields for climate change in the future. © 2014, ISB.


Huang J.,Institute of Desert and Meteorology | Li J.,Xinjiang Plant Protection Station
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2015

Climate change significantly affects insects’ behaviors. Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the most serious insect pests in the world. Much is known about the survival of the overwintering population and spring emergence of H. armigera. However, little is known about the effects of climate change on overwintering and spring emergence of H. armigera. This study investigated the effects of changes of air and soil temperatures and precipitation on overwintering pupae of H. armigera by analyzing historical data from Magaiti County in northwest China using statistical methods. The results showed that during the period of 1989–2006, the climate warming advanced the first-appearance date of overwintering pupae eclosion (FD) and end date of overwintering pupae eclosion (ED) by 1.276 and 0.193 days per year, respectively; the duration between the FD and ED (DFEPE) was prolonged by 1.09 days per year, which resulted in more eclosion of overwintering pupae. For a 1 °C increase in the maximum air temperature (Tmax) in winter, the FD became earlier by 3.234 days. Precipitation in winter delayed the FD and ED and produced little relative influence on DFEPE. A 1-mm increase of precipitation in winter delayed the FD and ED by 0.850 and 0.494 days, respectively. Mean air temperature (Tmean) in March, with a 41.3 % relative influence, precipitation in winter, with a 49.0 % relative influence, and Tmean in March, with a 37.5 % relative influence, were the major affecting factors on FD, ED, and DFEPE, respectively. Tmax in February with a 53.0 % relative influence was the major affecting factor on the mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP). Increased soil temperatures in October and November and autumn and air temperatures in winter could decrease the MOP, though the relative influences were lower than Tmax in February. Increased precipitation in winter increased the MOP, but the relative influence was only 4.2 % because of little precipitation. Tmean in October had the greatest influence on the pre-wintering density of pupae (PDP). Increasing soil temperatures in October, November, and autumn increased PDP. A higher PDP increased overwintering survival and advanced FD and prolonged DFEPE. The overwintering boundary air temperatures of H. armigera should be expanded due to higher soil temperature and snow covering. Thus, climate warming helped to enhance the survival of overwintering pupae. © 2014, ISB.


PubMed | Institute of Desert and Meteorology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of biometeorology | Year: 2016

Helicoverpa armigera (Hbner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the most damaging insect pests in the world. However, little is known about the effects of snow cover and soil temperature on the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. A field experiment was conducted from November 2, 2012 to April 24, 2013 at the agrometeorological experimental station in Wulanwusu, China. Overwintering pupae were embedded into the soil at depths of 5, 10, and 15cm in the following four treatments: without snow cover, snow cover, and increased temperatures from 600 and 1200W infrared lights. The results showed that snow cover and rising temperatures could all markedly increase soil temperatures, which was helpful in improving the survival of the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. The mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP) at a depth of 15cm was the highest, and the MOP at a depth of 5cm followed. The lower accumulated temperature (0C) (ATC) led to the higher MOP, and the lower diurnal soil temperature range (DSTR) likely led to the lower MOP. After snowmelt, the MOPs at the depths of 5 and 10cm increased as the soil temperature increased, especially in April. The AT of the soil (0C) was the factor with the strongest effect on MOP. The soil moisture content was not a major factor affecting the MOP in this semiarid region because precipitation was 45mm over the entire experimental period. With climate warming, the MOP will likely decrease, and the overwintering boundary air temperatures of H. armigera should be expanded due to higher soil temperatures and increased snow cover.


PubMed | Institute of Desert and Meteorology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of biometeorology | Year: 2015

Climate change significantly affects insects behaviors. Helicoverpa armigera (Hbner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the most serious insect pests in the world. Much is known about the survival of the overwintering population and spring emergence of H. armigera. However, little is known about the effects of climate change on overwintering and spring emergence of H. armigera. This study investigated the effects of changes of air and soil temperatures and precipitation on overwintering pupae of H. armigera by analyzing historical data from Magaiti County in northwest China using statistical methods. The results showed that during the period of 1989-2006, the climate warming advanced the first-appearance date of overwintering pupae eclosion (FD) and end date of overwintering pupae eclosion (ED) by 1.276 and 0.193 days per year, respectively; the duration between the FD and ED (DFEPE) was prolonged by 1.09 days per year, which resulted in more eclosion of overwintering pupae. For a 1 C increase in the maximum air temperature (Tmax) in winter, the FD became earlier by 3.234 days. Precipitation in winter delayed the FD and ED and produced little relative influence on DFEPE. A 1-mm increase of precipitation in winter delayed the FD and ED by 0.850 and 0.494 days, respectively. Mean air temperature (Tmean) in March, with a 41.3% relative influence, precipitation in winter, with a 49.0% relative influence, and T mean in March, with a 37.5% relative influence, were the major affecting factors on FD, ED, and DFEPE, respectively. T max in February with a 53.0% relative influence was the major affecting factor on the mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP). Increased soil temperatures in October and November and autumn and air temperatures in winter could decrease the MOP, though the relative influences were lower than T max in February. Increased precipitation in winter increased the MOP, but the relative influence was only 4.2% because of little precipitation. T mean in October had the greatest influence on the pre-wintering density of pupae (PDP). Increasing soil temperatures in October, November, and autumn increased PDP. A higher PDP increased overwintering survival and advanced FD and prolonged DFEPE. The overwintering boundary air temperatures of H. armigera should be expanded due to higher soil temperature and snow covering. Thus, climate warming helped to enhance the survival of overwintering pupae.


PubMed | Institute of Desert and Meteorology
Type: | Journal: International journal of biometeorology | Year: 2016

Helicoverpa armigera causes serious damage to most crops around the world. However, the impacts of snow thickness on the H. armigera overwintering pupae are little known. A field experiment was employed in 2012-2015 at Urumqi, China. At soil depths of 5, 10, and 15cm, overwintering pupae were embedded with four treatments: no snow cover (NSC), snow cover (SC), increasing snow thickness to 1.5 times the thickness of SC (ISSC-1), and to two times the thickness of SC (ISSC-2). Results suggested that snow cover and increasing snow thickness both significantly increased soil temperatures, which helped to decrease the mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP) of H. armigera. However, the MOP did not always decrease with increases in snow thickness. The MOPs in NSC and ISSC-1 were the highest and the lowest, respectively, though ISSC-2 had much thicker snow thickness than ISSC-1. A maximum snow thickness of 60cm might lead to the lowest MOP. The longer the snow cover duration (SCD) at a soil depth of 10cm in March and April was, the higher the MOP was. A thicker snow cover layer led to a higher soil moisture content (SMC) and a lower diurnal soil temperature range (DSTR). The highest and the lowest MOP were at a depth of 15 and 10cm, respectively. The SMC at the depths of 10 and 15cm had significant effects on MOP. A lower accumulated temperature (0C) led to a higher MOP. The DSTR in March of approximately 4.5C might cause the lowest MOP. The largest influence factor for the MOPs at depths of 5 and 10cm and the combined data were the SCDs during the whole experimental period, and for the MOPs at a depth of 15cm was the soil temperature in November.

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