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Gupta G.,Institute of Dental Studies and Technologies
Journal of medicine and life | Year: 2012

Gingival and Periodontal diseases represent a major concern both in dentistry and medicine. The majority of the contributing factors and causes in the etiology of these diseases are reduced or treated with ozone in all its application forms (gas, water, oil). The beneficial biological effects of ozone, its anti-microbial activity, oxidation of bio-molecules precursors and microbial toxins implicated in periodontal diseases and its healing and tissue regeneration properties, make the use of ozone well indicated in all stages of gingival and periodontal diseases. The primary objective of this article is to provide a general review about the clinical applications of ozone in periodontics. The secondary objective is to summarize the available in vitro and in vivo studies in Periodontics in which ozone has been used. This objective would be of importance to future researchers in terms of what has been tried and what the potentials are for the clinical application of ozone in Periodontics. Source

There has been a steady growing trend during the last few decades to develop tools to monitor periodontitis, in the field of oral disease diagnosis. Since GCF has the chance of being closely approximated to the periodontal tissues where periodontal disease begins, it seems to provide more information than markers in saliva. In response to bacterial infection, host production of inflammatory mediators, may be the trigger for periodontal disease progression. Existing paradigms in the biology of periodontitis have supported the detection of elevated levels of these mediators in GCF. This article is the Part II of the review that deals with inflammatory mediators and host-response modifiers as the potential biomarkers present in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and the chair side point-of-care diagnostic aids applicable to monitor periodontal inflammation. Source

Bansal M.,Institute of Dental Studies and Technologies
Journal of medicine and life | Year: 2013

Respiratory diseases are responsible for a significant number of deaths and considerable suffering in humans. Accumulating evidence suggests that oral disorders, particularly periodontal disease, may influence the course of respiratory infections like bacterial pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Oral periodontopathic bacteria can be aspirated into the lung causing aspiration pneumonia. The teeth may also serve as a reservoir for respiratory pathogen colonization and subsequent nosocomial pneumonia. The overreaction of the inflammatory process that leads to the destruction of the connective tissue is present in both periodontal disease and emphysema. This overreaction may explain the association between periodontal disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The mechanisms of infection could be the aspiration into the lung of oral pathogens capable of causing pneumonia, colonization of dental plaque by respiratory pathogens followed by aspiration, or facilitation of colonization of the upper airway by pulmonary pathogens by periodontal pathogens. The present article briefly reviews the epidemiologic evidence & role of periodontopathogens in causing respiratory infections. Source

Kaur S.,Adesh Institute of Dental science and Research | Singh G.,Adesh Institute of Medical Science and Research | Kaur K.,Institute of Dental Studies and Technologies
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics | Year: 2014

The cancer stem cell (CSC) concept derives from the fact that cancers are dysregulated tissue clones whose continued propagation is vested in a biologically distinct subset of cells that are typically rare. Rare CSCs have been isolated from a number of human tumors, including hematopoietic, brain, colon, and breast cancer. With the growing evidence that CSCs exist in a wide array of tumors, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate self-renewal and differentiation because corruption of genes involved in these pathways likely participates in tumor growth. Understanding the biology of CSCs will contribute to the identification of molecular targets important for future therapies. Source

Ranga P.,Institute of Dental Studies and Technologies
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2015

Oral melanin pigmentation is well documented in the literature and is considered to have multifaceted etiologies including genetic factors, tobacco use, systemic disorders and prolonged administration of certain drugs especially antimalarial agents and tricyclic antidepressant. Melanin, non-hemoglobin derived brown pigment, is the most common of the endogenous pigments and is produced by melanocytes present in the basal layer of epithelium. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, cosmetic concerns are common, particularly in patients having a very high smile line (gummy smile). Various depigmentation techniques have been employed, such as scalpel surgery, gingivectomy with free gingival autografting, cryosurgery, electrosurgery, chemical agent such as 90% phenol and 95% alcohol, abrasion with diamond burs, ND:YAG laser, semiconductor diode laser, and CO2 laser. One of the first and still popular techniques to be employed is the surgical removal of undesirable pigmentation using scalpels. The present case report shows a simple and effective surgical depigmentation technique that does not require sophisticated instruments or apparatus, yet yields esthetically acceptable results. © RJPT All right reserved. Source

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