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Chaudhary A.K.,Allahabad University | Chaudhary A.K.,MOTI | Singh M.,MOTI | Bharti A.C.,Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology ICPO | And 3 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2010

Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes that degrade all the components of extra cellular matrix and collagen. Various types of MMPs are known to be expressed and activated in patients with oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) as well as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The purpose of this study was to asses the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) adenosine insertion/deletion polymorphism (-1171 5A->6A) in the MMP-3 promoter region in these lesions.Methods: MMP-3 SNP was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in a case control study consisting of 362 participants; 101 cases of OSMF, 135 of HNSCC and 126 controls, compared for age, sex and habits. ROC distribution was plotted to assess the contributions of genetic variation in MMP-3 genotypes with relation to age.Results: Analysis of MMP 3 (-1171 5A->6A) polymorphism revealed the frequency of 5A allele in OSMF, HNSCC and controls to be 0.15, 0.13 and 0.07, respectively. A significant difference was found in 5A genotype frequency between OSMF (5A genotype frequency = 0.15, p = 0.01, OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.22-4.20) and in controls (5A genotype frequency 0.07) as well as HNSCC (5A genotype frequency 0.13, p = 0.03,95%CI = 1.06-3.51) and controls (5A genotype frequency = 0.07) In this study, 5A genotype had greater than two fold risk for developing OSMF (OR = 2.26) and nearly the same in case of HNSCC (OR = 1.94) as compared to controls. In patients with OSMF as well as HNSCC, the ROC analysis between the MMP-3 genotype and age, 6A/6A allele was found to be significant in patients both over and under 45 years of age; while the 5A/5A carrier alleles showed an association only in patients less than 45 years of age.Conclusions: This study concluded that the expression of MMP-3 genotype associated with the 5A alleles, it may have an important role in the susceptibility of the patients to develop OSMF and HNSCC. © 2010 Chaudhary et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Chaudhary A.K.,Allahabad University | Chaudhary A.K.,MOTI | Pandya S.,MOTI | Mehrotra R.,MOTI | And 2 more authors.
Virology Journal | Year: 2010

Background. Oral malignancy is a major global health problem. Besides the main risk factors of tobacco, smoking and alcohol, infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) and genetic alterations are likely to play an important role in these lesions. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of HC-II assay and PCR for the detection of specific HPV type (HPV 16 E6) in OSMF and OSCC cases as well as find out the prevalence of the high risk HPV (HR-HPV) in these lesions. Methods and materials. Four hundred and thirty patients of the potentially malignant and malignant oral lesions were taken from the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Moti Lal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad, India from Sept 2007-March 2010. Of which 208 cases were oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and 222 cases were oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The HC-II assay and PCR were used for the detection of HR-HPV DNA. Result. The overall prevalence of HR-HPV 16 E6 DNA positivity was nearly 26% by PCR and 27.4% by the HC-II assay in case of potentially malignant disorder of the oral lesions such as OSMF. However, in case of malignant oral lesions such as OSCC, 32.4% HPV 16 E6 positive by PCR and 31.4% by the HC-II assay. In case of OSMF, the two test gave concordant result for 42 positive samples and 154 negative samples, with an overall level of agreement of 85.4% (Cohen's kappa = 66.83%, 95% CI 0.553-0.783). The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 73.7% and 92.05% (p < 0.00). In case of OSCC, the two test gave concordant result for 61 positive samples and 152 negative samples, with an overall level of agreement of 88.3% (Cohen's kappa = 79.29, 95% CI 0.769-0.939) and the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 87.14% and 92.76% (p < 0.00). Conclusion. This study concluded that slight difference was found between the positivity rate of HR-HPV infection detected by the HC-II and PCR assay in OSMF and OSCC cases and the HC II assay seemed to have better sensitivity in case of OSCC. © 2010 Chaudhary et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Tilak A.R.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research | Kumar S.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Jain M.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences | Pant M.C.,University of Lucknow | And 6 more authors.
Cancer Investigation | Year: 2011

Distribution and gene-environment interaction of EPHX1 polymorphism was evaluated in 175 lung cancer patients and 322 controls from north India. Two novel non-synonymous, Lys117Arg and Leu263Phe, and twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the present study. Binary logistic regression analysis showed association of polymorphism Tyr113His with increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2-4.0, p < .05). Gene-environment interaction revealed that patients with His113His and smoking habit had significantly greater risk of lung cancer (OR = 4.52, 95% CI = 0.93-43.05, p < .05). Present study provided evidence that EPHX1 polymorphism is associated with lung cancer susceptibility in Indian population. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Chaudhary A.K.,Allahabad University | Chaudhary A.K.,MLN Medical College | Singh M.,MLN Medical College | Bharti A.C.,Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology ICPO | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Science | Year: 2010

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent proteinases that are capable of cleaving all extra cellular matrix (ECM) substrates. Degradation of matrix is a key event in progression, invasion and metastasis of potentially malignant and malignant lesions of the head and neck. It might have an important polymorphic association at the promoter regions of several MMPs such as MMP-1 (-1607 1G/2G), MMP-2 (-1306 C/T), MMP-3 (-1171 5A/6A), MMP-9 (-1562 C/T) and TIMP-2 (-418 G/C or C/C). Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are naturally occurring inhibitors of MMPs, which inhibit the activity of MMPs and control the breakdown of ECM. Currently, many MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) are under development for treating different malignancies. Useful markers associated with molecular aggressiveness might have a role in prognostication of malignancies and to better recognize patient groups that need more antagonistic treatment options. Furthermore, the introduction of novel prognostic markers may also promote exclusively new treatment possibilities, and there is an obvious need to identify markers that could be used as selection criteria for novel therapies. The objective of this review is to discuss the molecular functions and polymorphic association of MMPs and TIMPs and the possible therapeutic aspects of these proteinases in potentially malignant and malignant head and neck lesions. So far, no promising drug target therapy has been developed for MMPs in the lesions of this region. In conclusion, further research is required for the development of their potential diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities. © 2010 Chaudhary et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Chaudhary A.K.,Allahabad University | Chaudhary A.K.,MotiLal Nehru Medical College | Pandya S.,MotiLal Nehru Medical College | Mehrotra R.,MotiLal Nehru Medical College | And 3 more authors.
Biomarkers | Year: 2010

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are a family of zinc-dependent proteases that degrade the entire component of the extracellular matrix. Our study explores the association of the MMP1 gene promoter (-1607 1G/2G) polymorphisms in oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in an Indian population. The MMP1single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was genotyped by polymerase chain reactionrestriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in 412 patients with OSMF, 422 with HNSCC and 426 controls. Our results showed that the frequency of 1G/2G or 2G/2G promoter genotypes having the 2G allele is associated with higher enzymatic activity and significantly increases in OSMF (p<0.001) and HNSCC cases (p<0.00). In this study, results concluded that SNPs in the MMP1 promoter region may be associated with susceptibility to OSMF as well as HNSCC in an Indian population and addiction habits such as areca nut chewing and alcohol abuse may enhance the expression of the 2G allele of MMP1 genes in OSMF and HNSCC cases. © 2010 Informa UK, Ltd.


Singhal S.,Lok Nayak Hospital | Kohaar I.,Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology ICPO | Bharadwaj M.,Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology ICPO | Shukla D.K.,ICMR | And 2 more authors.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences | Year: 2010

The key elements that determine the host response to either the self-limited or a severe fulminant form of liver disease are unclear. We have investigated the potential association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) in their susceptibility to acute viral hepatitis (AVH) and fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) patients exhibiting specific viral etiology. A total of 124 individuals including 64 cases comprising 27 FHF, 37 AVH, and 60 healthy controls were recruited. SNPs at -238 (G/A), -308 (G/A), -857 (C/T), and -863 (C/A) of TNFα were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and confirmed by direct sequencing. Serum levels of TNFα were determined at admission and death or recovery. Association between the TNFα genotype and susceptibility to FHF was not evident; however, carrier genotypes in relation to the -308 (GA/AA) and -857 (CT/TT) loci were found to be significantly (P ≤ 0.05) associated with susceptibility to AVH in relation to controls. The mean TNFα serum levels at admission were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in FHF than AVH patients, but no marked difference was observed between FHF-E (expired; n = 17) and FHF-S (survivors; n = 10), though the former were comparatively higher. This study suggests that SNPs at -308 and -857 of the TNFα promoter may represent an increased risk for the development of AVH but not for FHF in the Indian population. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Thakur B.,SGRRIM | Mehrotra R.,Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology ICPO | Nigam J.S.,Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital
Pathology Research International | Year: 2013

Objective. To study the correlation of cytomorphological features in fine needle aspiration smears from patients suspected of having tuberculous lymphadenitis with Ziehl-Neelsen staining (ZN), auramine-rhodamine staining (ARS), and autofluorescence (AF). Methods. A total of 145 lymph nodes were aspirated, 3 air-dried smears were stained with Giemsa, Ziehl-Neelsen, and auramine-rhodamine stains, and 1 smear was wet fixed for Papanicolaou staining. Needle washes were incubated in Lowenstein-Jensen medium for culture. Papanicolaou and auramine-rhodamine stained smears were examined under fluorescent microscope using a blue excitation filter (450-480 nm). Results. Ninety aspirates were reported on cytomorphology as suggestive of tuberculous lymphadenitis. Smear positivity for Mycobacteria by Ziehl-Neelsen method was 26.67% (24/90), while positivity increased to 34.44% (31/90) by auramine-rhodamine and 42.22% (38/90) on autofluorescence. Culture was positive in 27.78% (25/90) aspirates. Using culture as the reference method, the statistical values of ZN, ARS, and AF were as follows: sensitivity 80.0%, 88.0%, 96.0%; specificity 93.85%, 86.15%, 78.46%; positive predictive values 83.33%, 70.97%, 63.16%; and negative predictive values 92.42%, 94.92%, 98.08%, respectively. Conclusion. There is a definite advantage of autofluorescence over Ziehl-Neelsen and auramine-rhodamine which is to detect Mycobacteria, being more sensitive as well as an inexpensive technique. Autofluorescence can be a useful addition to routine cytology for early diagnosis and effective treatment. © 2013 Brijesh Thakur et al.


Tripathi R.,Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology ICPO | Rath G.,VMMC and Safdarjang Hospital | Jawanjal P.,VMMC and Safdarjang Hospital | Sharma S.,Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology ICPO | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths among women in India. Limited reports are available for Notch-1 and Notch-3 protein in cervical carcinoma, which play crucial role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Methods: This study was designed to evaluate the role of Notch-1 and Notch-3 with context to HPV infection in cervical carcinoma. A total of 168 tissue biopsy samples comprising of tumor specimens (n = 98), precancer (n = 30) and nonneoplastic cervical tissues (n = 40) were screened for HPV infection by PCR and expression of Notch-1 and Notch-3 protein by Immunohistochemistry and Immunoblotting. Results: 80% (24/30) were found to be positive for HPV in precancer and 86.7% (85/98) in cancer patients. Notch-1 expression of precancer and cancer cases was found to be significantly down-regulated with severity of disease in nuclear (3.43±0.29; 2.04±0.19, p = 0.0001, p = 0.0001) and cytoplasm (3.07±0.29; 2.29±0.17, p = 0.0001, p = 0.0001) obtained from different stages as compared to normal cervix tissue (5.40±0.19, 4.97±0.15; p<0.001; p<0.001). However, Notch-3 expression of above cases was significantly up-regulated with severity of disease and showed intense nuclear (4.17±0.39; 4.74±0.18, p = 0.0001, p = 0.0001) and cytoplasm (3.67±0.36; 4.48±0.18, p = 0.0001, p = 0.0001) of different stages as compared to normal cervix tissue (0.95±0.20, 0.70±0.20; p<0.001; p<0.001) respectively. Conclusions: These findings suggest that Notch-1 and Notch-3 may play an important role with synergistic effect of HPV in regulating development and proliferation of cervical cancer through the deregulation of Notch signalling. This study also shows the clinical utility of both proteins which may be used as predictable biomarkers in diagnosing different histological sub-types of HPV associated cervical cancer. Nevertheless, abnormal activation of this pathway may provide legitimate targets for cervical cancer therapy. © 2014 Tripathi et al.


PubMed | Amity University and Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology ICPO
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Infection of specific high risk Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is known to cause cervical cancer and two prophylactic vaccines have been developed against two major high risk HPV types 16 and 18 for prevention of cervical cancer. Because of societal, religious and ethical issues associated with the vaccination of adolescent girls in India together with lack of awareness about HPV and HPV vaccines, no successful HPV immunization program has been employed in India.To determine knowledge, awareness and attitude of college students on HPV, HPV vaccine and cervical cancer.A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in a total of 1580 undergraduate students between the age group 16-26 years comprising 684 girls and 876 boys.Out of a total of 1580 students, girls had more knowledge about cervical cancer (82.45%, p<0.001), HPV (45.61%, p<0.001) and HPV vaccines (44%, p<0.001) when compared to those in boys. However, knowledge about the types of HPV and vaccines was poor. Interestingly, students from biology-major had more knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer (81.89%, p<0.001) and HPV (46.58%, <0.001) when compared to non-biology students. Girls from both biology and non-biology group had higher awareness compared to boys. Analysis of odds ratio (ORs) along with 95% CI showed older girls with 1.2 to 3 fold (p<0.05) higher knowledge than boys. All students agreed that girls should get vaccinated against HPV (p<0.001).It is suggested that there is a need for educational intervention and awareness campaigns to augment HPV immunization program for control of cervical cancer in India.


PubMed | Vardhman Mahavir Medical College & Safdarjung Hospital and Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology ICPO
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical laboratory analysis | Year: 2016

Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is frequently overexpressed in cervical carcinoma, but little is known about its altered serum concentration. Hence, this study evaluates clinical utility of cellular and serum level of Cox-2 enzyme in cervical cancer.The expression of Cox-2 was evaluated in cervical tissues and serum samples collected from normal controls (n = 100; n = 68), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia patients (CIN, n = 67; n = 12), and invasive squamous cell carcinoma patients (SCCs; n = 153; n = 127) by immunohistochemical and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analyses.The significant cytoplasmic overexpression of Cox-2 was noted in 50.7% of CIN and 69.9% of SCCs as compared with normal (P = 0.0001). Serum level of Cox-2 was also found to be elevated both in CIN (median 4.35 ng/ml) and in SCCs (median 19.39 ng/ml) with respect to normal (median 0.44 ng/ml; P = 0.0001), respectively. The ROC analysis revealed the potential of serum Cox-2 over its cellular expression to distinguish CIN and SCCs from normal.Augmented Cox-2 activity is implicated in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer, and its serum level could serve a potential to distinguish this malignancy. Therefore, it is suggested that serum Cox-2 may be useful in monitoring the diagnosis and treatment outcome of patients.

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