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Prasad S.,and Reproductive Biology Center | Kumar Y.,and Reproductive Biology Center | Singhal M.,and Reproductive Biology Center | Sharma S.,Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology ICMR
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India | Year: 2014

Objective: To evaluate role of serum estradiol levels in predicting likelihood of pregnancy in women undergoing GnRH-a protocol in IVF-ET cycles. Design: A 3-year retrospective analysis of estradiol levels on down-regulated day 2, day 6, and day of hCG trigger and subsequent clinical pregnancy rates. Setting: A university hospital tertiary referral centre. Population or Sample: Women undergoing IVF treatment. Methods: Hormonal assessment on the down-regulated day 2, day 6, and day of hCG trigger. Main Outcome Measure(s): Comparison of hormonal profile, antral follicular count on day 2, endometrial thickness on day of trigger, and number of oocytes retrieved between pregnant and the non-pregnant group. The prediction of IVF success was based on the quantitative levels of estradiol on a specific day in down-regulated cycle. Result(s): The overall pregnancy rate was 32.25 % (50/160). Estradiol level on down-regulated day 2 was 31.9 ± 12.6 and on the day of trigger was 1,996.46 ± 1,252.36 in pregnant women, which was significantly higher as compared to estradiol levels in non-pregnant women (27.6 ± 12.3 and 1,525.1 ± 1,116.42, respectively). It was found to be a significant prognostic marker for successful IVF treatment. Estradiol levels on down-regulated day 6 were found to be non-significant between the two groups. Conclusion(s): Estradiol level on down-regulated day 2 of menstrual cycle and on the day of trigger was found to have a significant impact on the success of IVF-ET. © 2014 Federation of Obstetric & Gynecological Societies of India.

Bhartiya D.,Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology ICMR | Chandramouli B.,Normal School of Pisa | Kumar N.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Proteins: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics | Year: 2015

Plasmodium falciparum encounters frequent environmental challenges during its life cycle which makes productive protein folding immensely challenging for its metastable proteome. To identify the important components of protein folding machinery involved in maintaining P. falciparum proteome, we performed a proteome-wide phylogenetic profiling across various species. We found that except HSP110, the parasite lost all other cytosolic nucleotide exchange factors essential for regulating HSP70 which is the centrum of the protein folding network. Evolutionary and structural analysis shows that besides its canonical interaction with HSP70, PfHSP110 has acquired sequence insertions for additional dynamic interactions. Molecular co-evolution profile depicts that the co-evolving proteins of PfHSP110 belong to distinct pathways like genetic variation, DNA repair, fatty acid biosynthesis, protein modification/trafficking, molecular motions, and apoptosis. These proteins exhibit unique physiochemical properties like large size, high iso-electric point, low solubility, and antigenicity, hence require PfHSP110 chaperoning to attain functional state. Co-evolving protein interaction network suggests that PfHSP110 serves as an important hub to coordinate protein quality control, survival, and immune evasion pathways in the parasite. Overall, our findings highlight potential accessory roles of PfHSP110 that may provide survival advantage to the parasite during its lifecycle and febrile conditions. The data also open avenues for experimental validation of auxiliary functions of PfHSP110 and their exploration for design of better antimalarial strategies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Gupta S.,Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology ICMR | Sodhani P.,Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology ICMR
Diagnostic Cytopathology | Year: 2012

The frequency of possible reasons for "atypical squamous cells" (ASC) overdiagnosis on Papanicolaou (Pap) smears was analyzed. Pap smears of 199 women with negative biopsy outcome after an ASC diagnosis were reviewed. Special attention was paid to presence of reproductive tract infections (RTIs), perimenopausal cells (PM cells), immature metaplastic cells, hormone-related alterations, and drying artefacts. Comparisons were made using Ï2 test between the two ASC qualifiers and also between premenopausal and peri/postmenopausal women. Possible reasons for ASC overdiagnosis could be assigned on Pap smear review in 88/199 (44.2%) negative biopsies. Overall, PM cells were the most frequent reason for ASC overdiagnosis, being present in 35/199 (17.6%) smears. RTIs were the next most common cause (14.6%). PM cells were the most significant confounding factors for persistent ASC undetermined significance (ASC-US) over interpretation (20.2%) while in none of the cases these were interpreted as ASC-H (P = 0.004). Of these, 32 smears belonged to peri/postmenopausal women while only three to premenopausal women (P < 0.001). Immature metaplastic cells were significantly more frequent cause of ASC-H rather than ASC-US interpretation (P = 0.007). RTIs and drying artefacts were more frequently overcalled as ASC-US (in premenopausal women) while hormonal changes were interpreted as ASC-H. Hormone related changes, immature metaplastic cells and drying artefacts more commonly resulted in ASC interpretation in peri/ postmenopausal smears. The results of this study suggest that diligent screening can substantially reduce ASC overdiagnosis, thereby reducing the referrals/ follow ups. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Gupta S.,Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology ICMR | Sodhani P.,Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology ICMR | Jain S.,Maulana Azad Medical College
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics | Year: 2012

Context: The diagnosis of metastatic cancer in fluids is of capital importance as, in most such instances, a rapid fatal outcome of the disease is anticipated. Aim: To determine the spectrum and cytomorphological features of the common and unusual malignancies presenting with effusions. Methods and Materials : A total of 11,562 effusion samples received for cytopathological examination over a 10-year period were analyzed retrospectively. Cytomorphological features of neoplastic effusions were studied. Special stains and immunocytochemistry (ICC) were performed to aid the diagnosis in difficult cases. Observations : The effusion samples comprised of pleural (5018), peritoneal (6340) and pericardial (204) fluids. A definitive diagnosis of classifiable malignancy could be given in 836 (7.3%) of these cases (5.7% adenocarcinomas and 1.6% uncommon malignancies). Adenocarcinoma was the most frequent cause of malignant pleural (70%) and peritoneal effusions (86.9%). The most common primary site for pleural metastasis was lung (35.7%), while for peritoneal metastasis, it was the ovary (54.3%). Among the uncommon neoplastic effusions, hematopoeitic malignancies were the most frequent, followed by squamous cell carcinomas. Primary malignant mesotheliomas were the most challenging to diagnose on effusion cytology. ICC was useful to arrive at a definitive diagnosis in difficult cases. Conclusions: Cytology is a useful tool to detect malignant effusions. However, in uncommon malignancies presenting as effusions, a detailed clinical history and ancillary investigations are often required to make a correct diagnosis.

Bharadwaj M.,Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology ICMR | Roy G.,Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology ICMR | Roy G.,Jamia Millia Islamia University | Dutta K.,Medical College Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews | Year: 2013

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal and prevalent cancers in many developing countries including India. Among the various etiological factors being implicated in the cause of HCC, the most important cause, however, is hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Among all HBV genes, HBx is the most critical carcinogenic component, the molecular mechanisms of which have not been completely elucidated. Despite its clinical significance, there exists a very elemental understanding of the molecular, cellular, and environmental mechanisms that drive disease pathogenesis in HCC infected with HBV. Furthermore, there are only limited therapeutic options, the clinical benefits of which are insignificant. Therefore, the quest for novel and effective therapeutic regimen against HBV-related HCC is of paramount importance. This review attempts to epitomize the current state of knowledge of this most common and dreaded liver neoplasm, highlighting the putative treatment avenues and therapeutic research strategies that need to be implemented with immediate effect for tackling HBV-related HCC that has plagued the medical and scientific fraternity for decades. Additionally, this review proposes a novel "five-point" management algorithm for HBV-related HCC apart from portraying the unmet needs, principal challenges, and scientific perspectives that are relevant to controlling this accelerating global health crisis. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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