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Li F.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Wu N.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Lu H.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Zhang J.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Mollusk remains are abundant in archaeological sites in the Guanzhong Basin of Northwestern China, providing good opportunities for investigations into the use of mollusks by prehistoric humans. Here we report on freshwater gastropod and bivalve mollusks covering the time interval from about 5600 to 4500 cal. yrs BP from sites of Mid-Late Neolithic age. They are identified as Cipangopaludina chinensis and Unio douglasiae, both of which are currently food for humans. The shells are well preserved and have no signs of abrasion. They are all freshwater gastropods and bivalves found in pits without water-reworked deposits and have modern representatives which can be observed in rivers, reservoirs, and paddy fields in the studied region. Mollusk shells were frequently recovered in association with mammal bones, lithic artifacts, and pottery. These lines of evidence indicate that the mollusks are the remains of prehistoric meals. The mollusk shells were likely discarded into the pits by prehistoric humans after the flesh was eaten. However, these mollusk remains may not have been staple food since they are not found in large quantities. Mollusk shell tools and ornaments are also observed. Shell tools include shell knives, shell reaphooks and arrowheads, whereas shell ornaments are composed of pendants and loops. All the shell tools and ornaments are made of bivalve mollusks and do not occur in large numbers. The finding of these freshwater mollusk remains supports the view that the middle Holocene climate in the Guanzhong Basin may have been warm and moist, which was probably favorable to freshwater mollusks growing and developing in the region. © 2013 Li et al.


Yan X.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and fine Mechanics | Yan X.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Dong J.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and fine Mechanics | Li Q.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and fine Mechanics | And 2 more authors.
Zhongguo Jiguang/Chinese Journal of Lasers | Year: 2014

In order to validate the possibility of using the optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging technology to non-invasively exam the ancient porcelain and using the section characteristics of the glaze reflected by OCT images to ancient porcelain classification, an OCT imaging system is used to test 8 different type and color ancient porcelain chips selected from 5 different kilns. The section structure images of these samples are obtained. The characteristics of OCT images about the size and distribution of bubbles and strong scattering particles, the uniformity, stratification and transmittance of the glaze layer are analyzed. The experimental results show that the imaging characteristics of 8 different ancient porcelain samples obtained by OCT imaging technology have significant difference, illustrating that species and kilns of glaze can be distinguished based on the section characteristics by OCT imaging technology.


Zhao H.X.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and fine Mechanics | Li Q.H.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and fine Mechanics | Liu S.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and fine Mechanics | Hu Y.Q.,Institute of Cultural Relics in Henan Province | Gan F.X.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and fine Mechanics
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2014

Confocal Raman microspectroscopy and portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy were used nondestructively to characterise 18 intact jade artifacts from the Cemetery of the Ying State in Pingdingshan, Henan Province, China. These jade artifacts date from the early to the middle of the Western Zhou Period (the mid-11th to the mid-9th century BC). Thirteen jade artifacts made of tremolite and two jade artifacts made of actinolite were discriminated from each other by their hydroxyl stretching modes, and a malachite pendant, a muscovite dagger-axe, and a crystal pendant were also identified. Black graphite was analysed in three jade artifacts composed of tremolite, and the mineralization temperatures were estimated and compared. A red powder was found on the surface of all of the jade artifacts, and this was found to be cinnabar (HgS), which is thought to have been added to the tomb environments during burial ceremonies. The chemical compositions and the possible provenances of the jade artifacts are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy and portable X-ray fluorescence analyses were conducted to identify nondestructively 18 jade artifacts from the Cemetery of the Ying State in Henan Province. The artifacts were made of nephrite, malachite, muscovite, and crystal. The characteristic OH stretching modes were used to discriminate between 13 tremolite and two actinolite jade artifacts. Most of them were of the D-type, but one was of the S-type. The chemical compositions were used to briefly assess the possible provenances of these artifacts. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Wang K.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and fine Mechanics | Dong J.-Q.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and fine Mechanics | Zhao H.-X.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and fine Mechanics | Gan F.-X.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and fine Mechanics | And 3 more authors.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi/Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis | Year: 2015

A total of 14 pieces of ancient jade artifact unearthed from Henan Province were non-destructively analyzed by means of a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (pXRF), laser Raman spectroscopy (portable and mobile) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology, comprehensively. The raw materials of ancient jade artifacts could be determined accurately through the combination of pXRF and portable Raman spectrometer in a short time. With the advantages of small size and easy-operation, these two instruments are suitable to in situ non-destructive analysis of ancient jade artifacts. The results of the pXRF shows that these ancient jade artifacts can be divided into 6 categories such as rich in Si Al K, rich in Ca, rich in Si Ca, rich in Si Mg, rich in Si, rich in Ca P. Their main phases have been successfully identified by the portable Raman spectrometer. In the lab, the mobile confocal laser Raman spectrometer, which help us find the Raman vibration peak of [OH] in the tremolite jade, is used to make up the disadvantages of the portable Raman spectrometer such as lower spectral resolution, lower accuracy and narrower measuring range. We can use the OCT to analyze the transparency, fiber fineness and inclusion etc. of the jade artifacts. The confocal laser Raman spectroscopy combined with OCT is used to analyze 2 containing inclusion of tremolite jade samples. OCT image can visually display the distribution characteristics of the inclusion in these 2 samples. Confocal laser Raman spectroscopy can accurately locate the sample surface of inclusion, then we can observe the micro morphology and analyze its phase. The results show that the black inclusion is graphite. This work is very significant to study the geographical origin of jade. Through the study we find, the use of pXRF, laser Raman spectroscopy (portable and mobile) and OCT can be achieved on the identification and analysis of cultural relic's phase composition and texture feature and meet the basic requirements of field archaeological work analysis. © 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.


Yan X.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and fine Mechanics | Yan X.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Dong J.-Q.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and fine Mechanics | Li Q.-H.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and fine Mechanics | And 3 more authors.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi/Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis | Year: 2015

The bubble is one of the most common feature in ancient glaze. The size and distribution of bubbles are closely associated with recipes of the raw materials for the body and glaze and the making process. To characterize the bubbles is essential for the study of ceramic production process, production places, times characteristics and so on. In order to explore the possibility of using the optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging technology to characterize the bubbles and the bubble distribution characteristic in glaze of ancient porcelain, sweep frequency OCT imaging system is used to detect five different types ancient porcelain chips. According to the two dimensional sectional images and three dimensional tomographic images of the transparent layer of glaze obtained by the OCT imaging system, the two dimensional sectional images characteristics and three dimensional slices characteristics of the bubbles in glaze are studied. The bubble characteristics in the glaze and its possible causes that gases in the body of the ceramic overflow to the glaze layer in the firing process are comprehensively analyzed. Meantime, the size of bubble is calculated according to the two dimensional sectional images based on pixel, and the result is compared with the traditional microscopic test result. The bubble size, two dimensional sectional characteristics and three dimensional tomographic image characteristics of opaque glaze are also studied. Experimental results show that the bubble characteristics in glaze of different ancient porcelain chips are obvious difference, the result of the bubble size calculated based on pixel coincides with the result of the bubble size observed by traditional microscope with ten times magnification, slices of the body near the body-glaze binding region based on OCT imaging technology three dimensional tomography can effectively reflect the bubble characteristics in glaze. The measurement of using OCT imaging technology to characterize bubble characteristics of the glaze is proposed, and the feasibility and the validity of the measurement are certified, and the nondestructive detection of bubble characteristics in ancient porcelain glaze is realized. Especially for the analysis of bubble characteristics of opaque glaze, the OCT imaging technology overcomes the limitations of using the traditional microscope technology to study the distribution of bubble in glaze in the past, and provides a novel, reliable analysis method for the analysis of ceramic glaze bubble characteristics. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.

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