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Risser P.,University of Hohenheim | Risser P.,Sudzucker AG Mannheim Ochsenfurt | Ebmeyer E.,KWS LOCHOW GMBH | Korzun V.,KWS LOCHOW GMBH | And 2 more authors.
Phytopathology | Year: 2011

Septoria tritici blotch (STB) is one of the most important leaf spot diseases in wheat worldwide. The goal of this study was to detect chromosomal regions for adult-plant resistance in large winter wheat populations to STB. Inoculation by two isolates with virulence to Stb6 and Stb15, both present in the parents, was performed and STB severity was visually scored plotwise as percent coverage of flag leaves with pycnidia-bearing lesions. 'Florett'/'Biscay' and 'Tuareg'/'Biscay', each comprising a cross of a resistant and a susceptible cultivar, with population sizes of 316 and 269 F 7:8 recombinant inbred lines, respectively, were phenotyped across four and five environments and mapped with amplified fragment length polymorphism, diversity array technology, and simple sequence repeat markers covering polymorphic regions of ≈1,340 centimorgans. Phenotypic data revealed significant (P < 0.01) genotypic differentiation for STB, heading date, and plant height. Entry-mean heritabilities (h 2) for STB were 0.73 for 'Florett'/'Biscay' and 0.38 for 'Tuareg'/'Biscay'. All correlations between STB and heading date as well as between STB and plant height were low (r = -0.13 to -0.20). In quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, nine and six QTL were found for STB ratings explaining, together, 55 and 51% of phenotypic variation in 'Florett'/'Biscay' and 'Tuareg'/'Biscay', respectively. Genotype-environment and QTL-environment interactions had a large impact. Two major QTL were detected consistently across environments on chromosomes 3B and 6D from 'Florett' and chromosomes 4B and 6B from 'Tuareg', each explaining 12 to 17% of normalized adjusted phenotypic variance. These results indicate that adult-plant resistance to STB in both mapping populations was of a quantitative nature.

Li F.-L.,Guizhou Normal University | Zeller F.J.,Institute of Crop Science and Plant Breeding | Huang K.-F.,Guizhou Normal University | Shi T.-X.,Guizhou Normal University | Chen Q.-F.,Guizhou Normal University
Plant Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2013

Fluorescent chromosome in situ PCR method plays an important role in many fields of biology and can be used for determining physical maps, chromosomal structures and phylogeny. In the present study, improvements are made to fluorescent chromosome in situ PCR protocol by incorporating the use of SYBR Green I. All the complex procedures in this method have been removed, including the fixing of PCR products, the linkage step of antigen and antibody and the necessary detection the fluorescence signal. This new method is useful for the types of studies mentioned above. As an example, this improved technique was performed using primers for the 16S rDNA, 4.5S rDNA and psbA chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) genes to investigate the phylogeny of buckwheat, the introgression of cpDNA genes into nuclear genome and the chromosomal location of these genes for the construction of a physical map. The results showed that the 16S rDNA, 4.5S rDNA and psbA cpDNA genetic markers were found with different abundances and physical distributions in the nuclear genomes of the seven buckwheat species (10 accessions in total) under investigation. These data were used to confirm the phylogeny of these buckwheat species by constructing a phylogenetic tree. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Wien.

Nikles S.,University of Graz | Heuberger H.,Institute of Crop Science and Plant Breeding | Hilsdorf E.,HerbaSinica Hilsdorf GmbH | Schmucker R.,PhytoLab GmbH and Co. KG. | And 2 more authors.
Planta Medica | Year: 2015

The dried ripe fruits of Xanthium sibiricum (Cang'erzi) are used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of nasal congestion, nasal discharge, allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, and wind-cold headaches. Carboxyatractyloside and atractyloside are important constituents of the fruits because these diterpenoid glycosides are responsible for their toxicity. In order to evaluate procedures for reducing the amount of the more toxic carboxyatractyloside, the fruits were dried and heated with different methods. Carboxyatractyloside and atractyloside were analysed by a new reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method using liquid chromatography-diode array detector-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The results revealed that temperature and drying methods have a strong influence on the content of carboxyatractyloside and atractyloside. Fruits which were treated at higher temperatures showed a lower content of carboxyatractyloside and an increased content of atractyloside, which is 50 times less toxic. This indicates that the roasting process can reduce toxicity effectively. The microbiological colonisation of Xanthium fruits is also reduced by roasting and by drying above 100°C. For the safe use of Cang'erzi, the effect of processing should be monitored and analysis of carboxyatractyloside and atractyloside should be obligatory in quality control. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

Senbayram M.,University of Gottingen | Senbayram M.,University of Kiel | Chen R.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Wienforth B.,Institute of Crop Science and Plant Breeding | And 4 more authors.
Bioenergy Research | Year: 2014

There is a growing concern that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during agricultural energy crop production might negate GHG emission savings which was not intended when promoting the use of renewable energy. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a major GHG, and in addition, it is the most powerful ozone-depleting compound that is emitted by human activity. The use of N fertilizers and animal manures is the main anthropogenic source of N2O emissions. In spite of their high relevance, we still have limited understanding of the complex underlying microbial processes that consume or produce N2O and their interactions with soil types, fertilizers (rate and types), plants, and other environmental variables. In a 2-year field experiment, we compared two important biogas crops in two different agro-ecological regions of northern Germany for their productivity and GHG emissions, using the closed-chamber technique and high time-resolution sampling. Silage maize, which is currently the most widespread crop grown for biogas fermentation purposes in Germany, was compared with an alternative bioenergy crop at each site. The three forms of nitrogen fertilizers/manures were given: calcium ammonium nitrate, cattle/pig slurry, and biogas residue. The greatest N2O flux activity occurred in the period of May–July in all crops and at both sites. Flux patterns indicated pronounced effects of soil moisture-soil mineral-N interactions which were also seen as causation of the higher N2O fluxes in the bioenergy crop maize compared to the other tested energy crops. However, the N2O emission per unit methane production (specific N2O emission) was clearly lower in soils planted with maize due to significantly higher methane hectare yield of maize. Our data suggest a linear relationship between increasing N input and increases in N2O emission in both years at site with sandy loam texture where highest N2O fluxes were measured. At sandy loam site, the percentage of applied N being emitted as N2O was 1.9 and 1.1 % in soils cropped with maize and 0.9 and 0.8 % in soils cropped with wheat during the investigation period 2007–2008 and 2008–2009, respectively. In contrast, at site with sandy soil texture, the percentage of applied N emitted as N2O was only 0.6 and 0.7 % in maize soils and 0.4 and 0.3 % in grassland during 2007–2008 and 2008–2009 period, respectively. Higher daily and annual N2O emissions at the sandy loam site were attributed to the finer soil texture and higher denitrification activity. The present study provides a very good basis for the assessment of direct emissions of greenhouse gases from relevant biogas crops in North-West Europe. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Quakernack R.,Institute of Crop Science and Plant Breeding | Pacholski A.,Institute of Crop Science and Plant Breeding | Techow A.,Institute of Crop Science and Plant Breeding | Herrmann A.,Institute of Crop Science and Plant Breeding | And 2 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2012

Anaerobic co-fermentation of animal slurries and crop silages leads to new types of biogas residues with an uncertain fertilizer value. Ammonia volatilization losses and crop productivity after supplying co-fermented biogas residues were investigated at a marshland site in Northern Germany. Due to the ecological risks of monocultures, maize (Zea mays) in monoculture as the dominant biogas crop in the marsh was tested against a crop rotation (maize, wheat (Triticum aestivum), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum)) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Biogas residues, applied by trail hoses, and CAN (mineral fertilizer) were used as nitrogen fertilizers. Ammonia losses at all application dates were investigated by an approach including passive flux samplers and a calibrated dynamic chamber method. Simultaneously a micrometeorological technique was used as a reference. A comparison of methods showed a close correlation (r 2=0.92) between micromet and passive flux sampler techniques. Ammonia volatilization losses (on average 15% NH 4 +-N applied) occurred mainly within the first 10h. Concomitant with high ammonia losses, a significant yield depression of 5tDMha -1 for ryegrass fertilized by biogas residues compared to CAN was observed. Little or no affect of biogas was observed for maize and wheat. The crop rotation had yields (34tDMha -12year -1) that were comparable with the maize monoculture (31tDMha -12year -1). © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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