Institute of Criminalistics Prague

of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic

Institute of Criminalistics Prague

of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic
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Zidkova A.,General University Hospital in Prague | Zidkova A.,Charles University | Coufalova P.,Institute of Criminalistics Prague | Capek P.,Institute of Criminalistics Prague
International Journal of Legal Medicine | Year: 2014

Sample containing 234 unrelated males and 197 unrelated females from Czech Republic was genotyped using an X-STR decaplex system in the following loci: DXS6789, DXS6809, DXS7132, DXS7133, DXS7423, DXS8378, DXS9898, DXS9902, GATA172D05, and GATA31E08. The linkage disequilibrium was observed between DXS6789 and DXS6809. The combined power of discrimination was 0.9999999998 (females) and 0.999998 (males). The mean exclusion chance was 0.999995 (trios) and 0.9998 (duos). This work presents the first population data for X-STR decaplex in Central Europe. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

PubMed | Registro Nacional de ADN, Laboratorio Of Genetica Forense, University Miguel Hernández, Forensic Science Unit and 37 more.
Type: | Journal: Forensic science international. Genetics | Year: 2016

Since 1992, the Spanish and Portuguese-Speaking Working Group of the ISFG (GHEP-ISFG) has been organizing annual Intercomparison Exercises (IEs) coordinated by the Quality Service at the National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences (INTCF) from Madrid, aiming to provide proficiency tests for forensic DNA laboratories. Each annual exercise comprises a Basic (recently accredited under ISO/IEC 17043: 2010) and an Advanced Level, both including a kinship and a forensic module. Here, we show the results for both autosomal and sex-chromosomal STRs, and for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in two samples included in the forensic modules, namely a mixture 2:1 (v/v) saliva/blood (M4) and a mixture 4:1 (v/v) saliva/semen (M8) out of the five items provided in the 2014 GHEP-ISFG IE. Discrepancies, other than typos or nomenclature errors (over the total allele calls), represented 6.5% (M4) and 4.7% (M8) for autosomal STRs, 15.4% (M4) and 7.8% (M8) for X-STRs, and 1.2% (M4) and 0.0% (M8) for Y-STRs. Drop-out and drop-in alleles were the main cause of errors, with laboratories using different criteria regarding inclusion of minor peaks and stutter bands. Commonly used commercial kits yielded different results for a micro-variant detected at locus D12S391. In addition, the analysis of electropherograms revealed that the proportions of the contributors detected in the mixtures varied among the participants. In regards to mtDNA analysis, besides important discrepancies in reporting heteroplasmies, there was no agreement for the results of sample M4. Thus, while some laboratories documented a single control region haplotype, a few reported unexpected profiles (suggesting contamination problems). For M8, most laboratories detected only the haplotype corresponding to the saliva. Although the GHEP-ISFG has already a large experience in IEs, the present multi-centric study revealed challenges that still exist related to DNA mixtures interpretation. Overall, the results emphasize the need for further research and training actions in order to improve the analysis of mixtures among the forensic practitioners.

Kotrly M.,Institute of Criminalistics Prague | Kotrly M.,Charles University | Turkova I.,Institute of Criminalistics Prague
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

Nonstandard and home-made explosives always pose a considerable threat for security forces in terms of their practically unlimited variability, both in composition and in construction of explosive devises. Electron microscopy-SEM with EDS/WDS is one of the key techniques for an analysis of non-standard explosives and post-blast residues. If the amount of materials allows it, a number of other analytical techniques are utilized, such as XRD that is capable of a direct phase identification of a crystalline substance, namely in mixtures. TLC has constantly proved itself useful for laboratory screening. Furthermore, combinations of FTIR, Raman spectrometry, LC MS, GC MS, XRF, micro XRF and other ones are applied. In the case of identification of post-blast residues, where an investigation is often conducted at the level of separate microscopic particles, the role of SEM is unsubstitutable, whereas the analysis of the organic phase from these often sporadic microparticles has been infeasible until recently. One of the very interesting options appears to be Raman spectrometry technique, which is nowadays obtainable as a supplement to SEM EDX. Newly available is the device that is fully confocal, SEM keeps full functionality and scan range, very high resolution (for green laser resolution 360nm FWHM; 430nm Rayleigh), it is fitted with high quality objective lens, enhances mapping through Raman spectrometry in a volume 250μm x 250μm x 250μm by piezo driven scanner (capacitive feedback linearized) and obtaining a high quality white light image (250μm x 250μm) immediately in the SEM chamber. This technique is currently undergoing intensive testing and it seems that the method could significantly help to address issues with the analysis of organic phases in electron microscopy not only in the case of post-blast residues and explosives. © 2015 SPIE.

Tyc J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Tyc J.,University of South Bohemia | Votypka J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Votypka J.,Charles University | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

Widely distributed, highly prevalent and speciose, trypanosomatid flagellates represent a convenient model to address topics such as host specificity, diversity and distribution of parasitic protists. Recent studies dealing with insect parasites of the class Kinetoplastea have been focused mainly on trypanosomatids from true bugs (Heteroptera), even though flies (Diptera, Brachycera) are also known as their frequent hosts. Phylogenetic position, host specificity and geographic distribution of trypanosomatids parasitizing dipteran hosts collected in nine countries on four continents (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Ecuador, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Mongolia, Papua New Guinea and Turkey) are presented. Spliced leader (SL) RNA gene repeats and small subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were PCR amplified from trypanosomatids infecting the gut of a total of forty fly specimens belonging to nine families. While SL RNA was mainly used for barcoding, SSU rRNA was utilized in phylogenetic analyses. Thirty-six different typing units (TUs) were revealed, of which 24 are described for the first time and represent potential new species. Multiple infections with several TUs are more common among brachyceran hosts than in true bugs, reaching one third of cases. When compared to trypanosomatids from heteropteran bugs, brachyceran flagellates are more host specific on the genus level. From seven previously recognized branches of monoxenous trypanosomatids, the Blastocrithidia and "jaculum" clades accommodate almost solely parasites of Heteroptera; two other clades (Herpetomonas and Angomonas) are formed primarily by flagellates found in dipteran hosts, with the most species-rich Leishmaniinae and the small Strigomonas and "collosoma" clades remaining promiscuous. Furthermore, two new clades of trypanosomatids from brachyceran flies emerged in this study. While flagellates from brachyceran hosts have moderate to higher host specificity, geographic distribution of at least some of them seems to be cosmopolitan. Moreover, the genus Angomonas, so far known only from South America, is present on other continents as well. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Mala P.Z.,Charles University | Mala P.Z.,Institute of Criminalistics Prague
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2013

This study examines two recently proposed methods for predicting nose projection from the skull, those developed by Stephan et al. (Am J Phys Anthropol 122, 2003, 240) and Rynn et al. (Forensic Sci Med Pathol 6, 2010, 20). A sample of 86 lateral head cephalograms of adult subjects from Central Europe was measured, and the actual and predicted dimensions were compared. Regarding nose projection (the anterior and vertical position of the pronasale), in general, the method of Rynn et al. (Forensic Sci Med Pathol 6, 2010, 20) was found to perform better and with less error variance than the method of Stephan et al. (Am J Phys Anthropol 122, 2003, 240), but the mean difference between the actual and predicted values did not exceed 2.2 mm (6.5% of the actual dimension) in most of the variables tested. The vertical dimensions of the nose were predictable with greater accuracy than the horizontal dimensions. Although the mean error of both methods is not great in practice and thus both methods could be considered to be "accurate," the real variance of error should not be overlooked. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

Zednikova Mala P.,Charles University | Zednikova Mala P.,Institute of Criminalistics Prague | Veleminska J.,Charles University
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2016

This study examined several methods used to estimate oral fissure position, lip margin position, and lip thickness recommended by Angel, George, Lebedinskaya, Taylor, Wilkinson et al., Balueva and Veselovskaya. A sample of 86 lateral head cephalograms of adult subjects from central Europe were measured and the actual and predicted dimensions were compared. The best estimation for oral fissure position was “opposite the lower ¾ mark of maxillary incisors” (error of 1.3 mm). Upper lip margin was predicted best by “upper ¼ mark of maxillary incisors” (error of 1.7 mm), and lower lip margin by “cementum-enamel junction of mandibular incisors” (error of 2.3 mm). The regression equations of Wilkinson et al. displayed least error (1.3 mm and 1.8 mm, respectively) for upper and lower lip thickness, and method of George (error of 3.4 mm) for total lip thickness. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences

Zidkova A.,Charles University | Capek P.,Institute of Criminalistics Prague | Horinek A.,Charles University | Coufalova P.,Institute of Criminalistics Prague
Electrophoresis | Year: 2014

DNA samples of 523 unrelated anonymized individuals (307 males and 216 females) born and living in the Czech Republic were genotyped using Investigator® Argus X-12 system in the following loci localized in four linkage groups: DXS10148, DXS10135, DXS8378, DXS7132, DXS10079, DXS10074, DXS10103, HPRTB, DXS10101, DXS10146, DXS10134, DXS742. Haplotype frequencies were calculated for each LG (Linkage Group). The frequency of most common haplotype was 0.016, 0.036, 0.042, and 0.023 for LG1, LG2, LG3, and LG4, respectively. The combined power of discrimination was more than 0.999999999 both for female and male samples. The mean exclusion chance was 0.99999999 (trios) and 0.999999 (duos). Informativity and suitability of Investigator® Argus X-12 for kinship determination was assessed by computing in several female-female duos using LR (Likelihood Ratio) determination for autosomal STR (PowerPlex ESI-17), linked (Investigator® Argus X-12 system), and unlinked (X-STR Decaplex) X-STR kits. Investigator® Argus X-12 proved to be very useful for sibship determination, since its LR values were relatively similar to LR for autosomal STR kit. This work presents the first population data for Investigator® Argus X-12 system in the Czech Republic. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

PubMed | Czech University of Life Sciences, Institute of Criminalistics Prague and Vlnarska 692
Type: | Journal: ZooKeys | Year: 2016

Based on revision of large recent collections of the authors, the following five species are first recorded from the Czech Republic: Fannia collini dAssis-Fonseca, 1966 (simultaneously first record in Central Europe), Fannia lugubrina (Zetterstedt, 1838), Fannia melania (Dufour, 1839), Fannia slovaca Gregor & Rozkon, 2005, and Fannia brinae Albuquerque, 1951 (simultaneously first record from low altitudes). Another species, Fannia alpina Pont, 1970, is first recorded from Slovak Republic, and Fannia cothurnata (Loew, 1873) is first recorded from Kazakhstan. An updated key to males of European species of Fannia is presented. A list of Czech and Slovak Fanniidae is appended. One new synonym is established: Fannia lucida Chillcott, 1961 is considered junior synonym of Fannia norvegica Ringdahl, 1934. Altogether two species are first recorded from Bohemia [Fannia cothurnata (Loew, 1873) and Fannia vespertilionis Ringdahl, 1934] and three for Moravia [Fannia alpina Pont, 1970, Fannia conspecta Rudzinski, 2003, and Fannia limbata (Tiensuu, 1938) - this species considered in Central Europe very rare was found in numbers near waters both running and standing in early spring under unusually warm temperature conditions].

Kotrly M.,Institute of Criminalistics Prague | Turkova I.,Institute of Criminalistics Prague
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

Microscopic methods play a key role in issues covering analyses of objects of art that are used on the one hand as screening ones, on the other hand they can lead to obtaining data relevant for completion of expertise. Analyses of artworks, gemmological objects and other highly valuable commodities usually do not rank among routine ones, but every analysis is specific, be it e.g. material investigation of artworks, historical textile materials and other antiques (coins, etc.), identification of fragments (from transporters, storage places, etc.), period statues, sculptures compared to originals, analyses of gems and jewellery, etc. A number of analytical techniques may be employed: optical microscopy in transmitted and reflected light, polarization and fluorescence in visible, UV and IR radiation; image analysis, quantitative microspectrophotometry; SEM/EDS/WDS; FTIR and Raman spectroscopy; XRF and microXRF, including mobile one; XRD and microXRD; x-ray backlight or LA-ICP-MS, SIMS, PIXE; further methods of organic analysis are also utilised - GS-MS, MALDI-TOF, etc. © 2012 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

Kotrly M.,Institute of Criminalistics Prague | Turkova I.,Institute of Criminalistics Prague
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

Electron microanalysis in forensic practice ranks among basic applications used in investigation of traces (latents, stains, etc.) from crime scenes. Applying electron microscope allows for rapid screening and receiving initial information for a wide range of traces. SEM with EDS/WDS makes it possible to observe topography surface and morphology samples and examination of chemical components. Physical laboratory of the Institute of Criminalistics Prague use SEM especially for examination of inorganic samples, rarely for biology and other material. Recently, possibilities of electron microscopy have been extended considerably using dual systems with focused ion beam. These systems are applied mainly in study of inner micro and nanoparticles, thin layers (intersecting lines in graphical forensic examinations, analysis of layers of functional glass, etc.), study of alloys microdefects, creating 3D particles and aggregates models, etc. Automated mineralogical analyses are a great asset to analysis of mineral phases, particularly soils, similarly it holds for cathode luminescence, predominantly colour one and precise quantitative measurement of their spectral characteristics. Among latest innovations that are becoming to appear also at ordinary laboratories are TOF - SIMS systems and micro Raman spectroscopy with a resolution comparable to EDS/WDS analysis (capable of achieving similar level as through EDS/WDS analysis). © 2013 SPIE.

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