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Tyc J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Tyc J.,University of South Bohemia | Votypka J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Votypka J.,Charles University | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

Widely distributed, highly prevalent and speciose, trypanosomatid flagellates represent a convenient model to address topics such as host specificity, diversity and distribution of parasitic protists. Recent studies dealing with insect parasites of the class Kinetoplastea have been focused mainly on trypanosomatids from true bugs (Heteroptera), even though flies (Diptera, Brachycera) are also known as their frequent hosts. Phylogenetic position, host specificity and geographic distribution of trypanosomatids parasitizing dipteran hosts collected in nine countries on four continents (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Ecuador, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Mongolia, Papua New Guinea and Turkey) are presented. Spliced leader (SL) RNA gene repeats and small subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were PCR amplified from trypanosomatids infecting the gut of a total of forty fly specimens belonging to nine families. While SL RNA was mainly used for barcoding, SSU rRNA was utilized in phylogenetic analyses. Thirty-six different typing units (TUs) were revealed, of which 24 are described for the first time and represent potential new species. Multiple infections with several TUs are more common among brachyceran hosts than in true bugs, reaching one third of cases. When compared to trypanosomatids from heteropteran bugs, brachyceran flagellates are more host specific on the genus level. From seven previously recognized branches of monoxenous trypanosomatids, the Blastocrithidia and "jaculum" clades accommodate almost solely parasites of Heteroptera; two other clades (Herpetomonas and Angomonas) are formed primarily by flagellates found in dipteran hosts, with the most species-rich Leishmaniinae and the small Strigomonas and "collosoma" clades remaining promiscuous. Furthermore, two new clades of trypanosomatids from brachyceran flies emerged in this study. While flagellates from brachyceran hosts have moderate to higher host specificity, geographic distribution of at least some of them seems to be cosmopolitan. Moreover, the genus Angomonas, so far known only from South America, is present on other continents as well. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Mala P.Z.,Charles University | Mala P.Z.,Institute of Criminalistics Prague
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2013

This study examines two recently proposed methods for predicting nose projection from the skull, those developed by Stephan et al. (Am J Phys Anthropol 122, 2003, 240) and Rynn et al. (Forensic Sci Med Pathol 6, 2010, 20). A sample of 86 lateral head cephalograms of adult subjects from Central Europe was measured, and the actual and predicted dimensions were compared. Regarding nose projection (the anterior and vertical position of the pronasale), in general, the method of Rynn et al. (Forensic Sci Med Pathol 6, 2010, 20) was found to perform better and with less error variance than the method of Stephan et al. (Am J Phys Anthropol 122, 2003, 240), but the mean difference between the actual and predicted values did not exceed 2.2 mm (6.5% of the actual dimension) in most of the variables tested. The vertical dimensions of the nose were predictable with greater accuracy than the horizontal dimensions. Although the mean error of both methods is not great in practice and thus both methods could be considered to be "accurate," the real variance of error should not be overlooked. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

Akbarzadeh K.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Wallman J.F.,University of Wollongong | Sulakova H.,Institute of Criminalistics Prague | Szpila K.,Nicolaus Copernicus University
Parasitology Research | Year: 2015

The lack of reliable tools for species identification of necrophagous blowflies of the Middle East is a serious obstacle to the development of forensic entomology in the majority of countries of this region. Adding to the complexity of diagnosing the regional fauna is that species representing three different zoogeographical elements exist in sympatry. In response to this situation, a high-quality key to the adults of all species of forensically relevant blowflies of the Middle East has been prepared. Thanks to the modern technique of image-stack stereomicroscopy and high-quality entomological materials, this new key can be easily applied by investigators inexperienced in the taxonomy of blowflies. The major technical problems relating to the species identification of necrophagous blowflies of the Middle East are also discussed. © 2015, The Author(s).

Kotrly M.,Institute of Criminalistics Prague | Kotrly M.,Charles University | Turkova I.,Institute of Criminalistics Prague
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

Nonstandard and home-made explosives always pose a considerable threat for security forces in terms of their practically unlimited variability, both in composition and in construction of explosive devises. Electron microscopy-SEM with EDS/WDS is one of the key techniques for an analysis of non-standard explosives and post-blast residues. If the amount of materials allows it, a number of other analytical techniques are utilized, such as XRD that is capable of a direct phase identification of a crystalline substance, namely in mixtures. TLC has constantly proved itself useful for laboratory screening. Furthermore, combinations of FTIR, Raman spectrometry, LC MS, GC MS, XRF, micro XRF and other ones are applied. In the case of identification of post-blast residues, where an investigation is often conducted at the level of separate microscopic particles, the role of SEM is unsubstitutable, whereas the analysis of the organic phase from these often sporadic microparticles has been infeasible until recently. One of the very interesting options appears to be Raman spectrometry technique, which is nowadays obtainable as a supplement to SEM EDX. Newly available is the device that is fully confocal, SEM keeps full functionality and scan range, very high resolution (for green laser resolution 360nm FWHM; 430nm Rayleigh), it is fitted with high quality objective lens, enhances mapping through Raman spectrometry in a volume 250μm x 250μm x 250μm by piezo driven scanner (capacitive feedback linearized) and obtaining a high quality white light image (250μm x 250μm) immediately in the SEM chamber. This technique is currently undergoing intensive testing and it seems that the method could significantly help to address issues with the analysis of organic phases in electron microscopy not only in the case of post-blast residues and explosives. © 2015 SPIE.

Zidkova A.,General University Hospital in Prague | Zidkova A.,Charles University | Coufalova P.,Institute of Criminalistics Prague | Capek P.,Institute of Criminalistics Prague
International Journal of Legal Medicine | Year: 2014

Sample containing 234 unrelated males and 197 unrelated females from Czech Republic was genotyped using an X-STR decaplex system in the following loci: DXS6789, DXS6809, DXS7132, DXS7133, DXS7423, DXS8378, DXS9898, DXS9902, GATA172D05, and GATA31E08. The linkage disequilibrium was observed between DXS6789 and DXS6809. The combined power of discrimination was 0.9999999998 (females) and 0.999998 (males). The mean exclusion chance was 0.999995 (trios) and 0.9998 (duos). This work presents the first population data for X-STR decaplex in Central Europe. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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