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Zhang Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen W.,Cotton Research Institute of CAAS | Yi B.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2011

Yellow seed color, which results from a thinner seed coat, is associated with improved feed quality of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) meal and increased oil and protein content. As this trait follows various genetic models under different genetic backgrounds, a study was performed in two genetic backgrounds to gain a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying yellow seed color. The quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was undertaken using two crosses, Quantum ×No. 2127-17 (HZ-1) and No. 2127-17 × 94,570 (HZ-2). In the HZ-1 population, three putative QTL were detected in linkage groups N18, N5, and N3, respectively. For all of them, yellow seed color arose from the No. 2127-17 alleles. Of these QTL, the one in linkage group N18 (Bnsc-18a) explained more than half of the phenotypic variation. In the HZ-2 population, three QTL were found in linkage groups N9, N18, and N8, respectively. Of these QTL, that in linkage group N9 (Bnsc-9a) explained more than half of the phenotypic variation, whereas the QTL Bnsc-18a had a low seed color value and explained only 9.03-11.72% of the phenotypic variation. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) of the extremes of a BC1 population derived from the cross of No. 2127-17 × 94,570 (HZ-3) identified one major gene that was identical with the QTL Bnsc-9a detected in the HZ-2 population. The QTL Bnsc-18a was common in the HZ-1 and HZ-2 populations, and the others were population-specific. These results suggested that different black-seeded forms had different seed color genes. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Luan M.,Institute of Bast Fiber Crops | Luan M.,Cotton Research Institute of CAAS | Guo X.,Cotton Research Institute of CAAS | Zhang Y.,Cotton Research Institute of CAAS | Yao J.,Cotton Research Institute of CAAS
Journal of Natural Fibers | Year: 2010

The additive (A), dominant (D), and gene-environment interaction effect components because of Sea Island cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) chromosome (arm) are separated using 16 chromosome substitute (CS-B) lines by a modified AD model. The CS-B lines and their receptor, TM-1, are used as male parents and top-crossed with three elite upland cotton cultivars to obtain 51 F 1 hybrids. The 51 F 1 hybrids, 16 CS-B lines, TM-1, and three cultivars were planted by a complete blot design with three replications at two locations in 2006. The result shows that chromosome 22Lo and 22Sh are significantly associated with fiber quality traits. As for Sea Island cotton chromosome (arm), chromosome 2 is used to improve elongation by early generation selection. Chromosome 14Sh, which is used to improve fiber length and strength, can also be achieved by early generation selection. It is also beneficial to use chromosome 15Sh to improve fiber strength, and to use chromosome 22Sh to improve elongation. As for hybrid cotton breeding, it is reasonable, using chromosome 11Sh from Sea Island cotton, to improve fiber quality. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Campbell B.T.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Saha S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Percy R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Frelichowski J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 18 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2010

The cultivated Gossypium spp. (cotton) represents the single most important, natural fiber crop in the world. In addition to its fiber, the oil and protein portion of the cottonseed also represents significant economic value. To protect the worldwide economic value of cotton fiber and cotton byproducts, coordinated efforts to collect and maintain cotton genetic resources have increased over the last 100 yr. The classified genetic resources of cotton are extensive and include five tetraploid species in the primary gene pool, 20 diploid species in the secondary gene pool, and 25 diploid species in the tertiary gene pool. This report provides information on the status and contents of eight major cotton germplasm collections present across the world. Based on the findings of this report, a number of classified Gossypium species are not maintained in these collections, and several are underrepresented and vulnerable to extinction. This report presents several critical challenges and opportunities facing international efforts to enhance and preserve the world's Gossypium genetic resources. Multinational communication and collaboration are essential to protect, secure, and evaluate the global cotton germplasm resources. Without global, collaborative efforts, the rarest and most unique cotton germplasm resources are vulnerable to extinction. © Crop Science Society of America.

Guo F.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Guo F.,Shandong Normal University | Liu C.,Cotton Research Institute of CAAS | Xia H.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC) genes, AtLEC1 and AtLEC2, are important embryonic regulators that play key roles in morphogenesis and maturation phases during embryo development. Ectopic expression of AtLEC1 and AtLEC2 in tobacco caused abnormality in transgenic seedling. When transgenic seeds germinated on medium containing 30 μM DEX, LEC1 transgenic seedlings were ivory and fleshy, with unexpanded cotyledons, stubby hypocotyls, short roots and no obvious callus formation at the shoot meristem position. While LEC2 transgenic seedlings formed embryonic callus on the shoot apical meristem and somatic embryo-like structures emerged from the surface of the callus. When callus were transferred to hormone free MS0 medium more shoots were regenerated from each callus. However, shoot formation was not observed in LEC1 overexpressors. To investigate the mechanisms of LEC2 in somatic embryogenesis, we studied global gene expression by digital gene expression profiling analysis. The results indicated that ectopic expression of LEC2 genes induced accumulation of embryo-specific proteins such as seed storage proteins, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes, products of steroid biosynthesis related genes and key regulatory genes of the embryo development. Genes of plant-specific transcription factors such as NAC domain protein, AP2 and GRAS family, resistance-related as well as salicylic acid signaling related genes were up-regulated in LEC2 transgenic seedlings. Ectopi c expression of LEC2 induced large number of somatic embryo formation and shoot regeneration but 20 d DEX induction of LEC1 is not sufficient to induce somatic embryogenesis and shoot formation. Our data provide new information to understand the mechanisms on LEC2 gene's induction of somatic embryogenesis. © 2013 Guo et al.

Wu M.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Wu M.,Cotton Research Institute of CAAS | Fan S.L.,Cotton Research Institute of CAAS | Song M.Z.,Cotton Research Institute of CAAS | And 8 more authors.
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2011

A full-length cDNA designated GhTM6, which encodes an organ differentiation-related B-class MADS-box protein, was isolated from Upland cotton (Gossipium hirsutum) by screening a normalized fulllength cDNA library and using a RT-PCR strategy. The translated sequence analysis indicated that the polypeptide contained MADS-box and K domains and had a classic TM6 motif, i. e., the paleoAP3 in the C-terminal region. The phylogenetic analysis showed that GhTM6 is closest to CeTM6, MaTM6, BuTM6, and PhTM6. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the GhTM6 gene was expressed at high levels in all tissues examined, such as those from squares, flowers, petals, stamens, and carpels under normal growth conditions. GhTM6 was expressed at high levels before floral initiation and declined thereafter. Furthermore, six stamens were seen in the transgenic tobacco flower as compared to five stamens in a wild-type flower. The results indicated that GhTM6 did not exhibit the full B-function spectrum, because it is only involved in the determination of stamen organ identity. However, its function in cotton will need to be examined in transgenic cotton plants. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

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