Institute of Clinical Outcomes Research and Education

Palo Alto, CA, United States

Institute of Clinical Outcomes Research and Education

Palo Alto, CA, United States
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Ladabaum U.,Stanford University | Boyd E.,University of California at Davis | Zhao W.K.,Kaiser Permanente | Mannalithara A.,Stanford University | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2012

Background & Aims: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) imposes significant clinical and economic burdens. We aimed to characterize practice patterns for patients with IBS in a large health maintenance organization, analyzing point of diagnosis, testing, comorbidities, and treatment. Methods: Members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California who were diagnosed with IBS were matched to controls by age, sex, and period of enrollment. We compared rates of testing, comorbidities, and interventions. Results: From 1995-2005, IBS was diagnosed in 141,295 patients (mean age, 46 years; standard deviation, 17 years; 74% female). Internists made 68% of diagnoses, gastroenterologists 13%, and others 19%. Lower endoscopy did not usually precede IBS diagnosis. Patients with IBS were more likely than controls to have blood, stool, endoscopic, and radiologic tests and to undergo abdominal or pelvic operations (odds ratios, 1.5-10.7; all P < .0001). Only 2.7% were tested for celiac disease, and only 1.8% were eventually diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease. Chronic pain syndromes, anxiety, and depression were more common among IBS patients than among controls (odds ratios, 2.7-4.6; all P < .0001). Many patients with IBS were treated with anxiolytics (61%) and antidepressants (55%). Endoscopic and radiologic testing was most strongly associated with having IBS diagnosed by a gastroenterologist. Psychotropic medication use was most strongly associated with female sex. Conclusions: In a large, managed care cohort, most diagnoses of IBS were made by generalists, often without endoscopic evaluation. Patients with IBS had consistently higher rates of testing, chronic pain syndromes, psychiatric comorbidity, and operations than controls. Most patients with IBS were treated with psychiatric medications. © 2012 AGA Institute.

Cheung R.,Stanford University | Cheung R.,VA Palo Alto Health Care System 154C | Mannalithara A.,Stanford University | Singh G.,Stanford University | Singh G.,Institute of Clinical Outcomes Research and Education
Digestive Diseases and Sciences | Year: 2010

Background: Studies on mostly veterans found the majority of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients were not treated. Little information exists on a broad-based population. Aims: To determine the national trend of ambulatory visits with a diagnosis of hepatitis C and the prescription of antiviral therapy associated with such visits. Methods: Retrospective analysis of national cross-sectional databases, the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS), and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) encompassing all ambulatory visits from 2000 to 2006. Results: During the study period, 16.5 million visits (0.21% of all visits) carried a diagnosis of hepatitis C and the number initially increased. Characteristics of the hepatitis C patients were: 65% male; 71% white, 22% black; 69% ≥45 years old. Overall, 47% had private insurance, 24% had Medicaid, and 12% had Medicare. Only 9.1% of these patients were prescribed antiviral treatment for CHC. There was no significant difference between those who received treatment and those who did not in terms of age, gender, race, and insurance status. HIV infection, mood, substance-use disorders, and anemia were more common in the CHC group. Conclusions: Less than 10% of the ambulatory visits for hepatitis C were associated with a prescription for antiviral therapy, independent of demographic and insurance status. Purposes of the clinic visits were different in the CHC group compared to the general population. The reason for the low treatment rate is not clear but deserves further investigation. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Tanaka E.,Stanford University | Tanaka E.,Institute of Clinical Outcomes Research and Education | Tanaka E.,Tokyo Women's Medical University | Mannalithara A.,Stanford University | And 8 more authors.
Rheumatology International | Year: 2012

We investigated the effect of long-term corticosteroid usage in suppressing the progression of functional disability in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We studied 3,982 RA patients, who had continuous enrollment for at least 3 years, among 9,132 RA patients enrolled in an observational cohort study, IORRA, in Tokyo, Japan, from 2000 to 2007. The DAS28 and Japanese version of Health Assessment Questionnaire (J-HAQ) scores were collected at 6-month intervals (each phase). Among these patients, those with DAS28 values under 3.2 in all phases and RA disease duration under 2 years at study entry were selected as "early RA patients with well-controlled disease". These patients were further classified into 3 groups based on average months of steroid usage per year: Non-users, Medium-users, and Frequent-users. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between steroid usage and the final J-HAQ scores. Among the 3,982 patients, 109 had DAS28 values under 3.2 in all the phases and were selected as study cohort. The average Final J-HAQ in Non-user (N = 64), in Medium-user (N = 25), in Frequent-user group (N = 20) was 0.04, 0.06, and 0.33, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis after adjusting for all potential covariates confirmed that frequent steroid usage was the most significant factor associated with higher final J-HAQ scores (P<0.05). Frequent steroid usage was associated with significantly higher final J-HAQ scores in early RA patients, even though their disease was managed efficiently by maintaining the DAS28 values under 3.2 over a long-term period. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

Tanaka E.,Stanford University | Tanaka E.,Institute of Clinical Outcomes Research and Education | Tanaka E.,Tokyo Women's Medical University | Inoue E.,Tokyo Women's Medical University | And 10 more authors.
Modern Rheumatology | Year: 2010

Our objective was to describe outpatient medical care costs of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the prebiologics period in Japan. The outpatient costs of 6,771 RA patients (17,666 patient years) who were enrolled in an observational cohort study at the Institute of Rheumatology, Rheumatoid Arthritis (IORRA), in Tokyo, Japan, were calculated from the billing records dated from 2000 to 2004. Associations between outpatient costs and variables such as age, RA duration, RA disease activities, and disability levels were assessed. The average outpatient cost gradually increased (+7.7% in 4 years) from 271,498 JPY per year in 2000 to 292,417 JPY per year in 2004. Medications accounted for approximately 50% of total outpatient costs, which increased 29.6% during the 4 years. The outpatient costs increased in association with aging, longer RA duration, higher Disease Activity Score of 28 Joints (DAS28), and higher Japanese version of Health Assessment Questionnaire (J-HAQ) score. Generalized linear regression analysis revealed that both DAS28 and J-HAQ scores were the most significant factors associated with outpatient costs (p < 0.001). Outpatient costs for patients with RA increased year after year over the 4-year period under observation in Japan. Medical costs were higher with increasing RA disease activity and disability levels. © 2009 Japan College of Rheumatology.

Arora G.,University of Houston | Arora G.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Singh G.,Stanford University | Singh G.,Institute of Clinical Outcomes Research and Education | And 5 more authors.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences | Year: 2010

Background and Aim: Intestinal and extra-intestinal complications are associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but their exact incidence is not well known. In order to improve our understanding of their incidence and impact, we assessed the complications associated with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) in a population-based study in Medicaid patients. Methods: We utilized a retrospective cohort design and identified cases of UC and CD using Medi-Cal, the Medicaid program for the State of California. The disease cohort was age- and gender-matched to four controls each and the intestinal and extra-intestinal complications of CD and UC (analyzed separately) were studied over a period of 5 years following the initial diagnosis. Results: For UC, the total number of intestinal complications, per 100 cases, was 92 observed compared to 21 expected; the total number of extra-intestinal complications was 42 observed compared to 30 expected. For CD, the number of intestinal complications was 81 observed compared to 20 expected and for extra-intestinal complications, 37 observed compared to 26 expected (all p < 0.001). For both UC and CD, bleeding was the most frequently seen intestinal complication, while the most common extra-intestinal complication was osteoporosis. Conclusions: IBD is associated with several intestinal and extra-intestinal complications of variable incidence and risk. Success of therapeutic regimens should be measured by decreases in incidence, risks, and costs of these complications, in addition to the usual impact on disease activity. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Arora G.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Mannalithara A.,Stanford University | Mithal A.,Institute of Clinical Outcomes Research and Education | Triadafilopoulos G.,Stanford University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Chronic constipation (CC) is a common condition but its concurrent conditions are not well characterized. We measured the prevalence and risk of developing 15 pre-specified concurrent conditions in patients with CC. Methods: Retrospective cohort study using the Medicaid database of California, utilizing ICD-9 codes for detection of cases (CC), controls (patients with GERD) and concurrent conditions. Study period was 01/01/1995 to 06/30/2005. Index date was the date 3 months before the first physician visit for CC. Pre-index time (12 months) was compared to post-index time (12 months) to assess the association of every concurrent condition within each cohort. To account for ascertainment bias, an adjusted odds ratio was calculated by comparing the odds ratio for every concurrent condition in the CC cohort to that in the GERD cohort. Results: 147,595 patients with CC (mean age 54.2 years; 69.7% women; 36.2% white) and 142,086 patients with GERD (mean age 56.3 years; 65.3% women; 41.6% white) were evaluated. The most prevalent concurrent conditions with CC were hemorrhoids (7.6%), diverticular disease (5.9%), ano-rectal hemorrhage (4.7%), irritable bowel syndrome (3.5%) and fecal impaction (2%). When adjusted for ascertainment bias, the most notable associations with CC were Hirschsprung's disease, fecal impaction and ano-rectal conditions such as fissure, fistula, hemorrhage and ulcers. Conclusion: Chronic constipation is associated with several concurrent conditions of variable risk and prevalence. To reduce the overall burden of CC, these concurrent conditions need to be addressed. © 2012 Arora et al.

Myer P.A.,Stanford University | Mannalithara A.,Stanford University | Singh G.,Institute of Clinical Outcomes Research and Education | Singh G.,Stanford University | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVES:Gastrointestinal (GI) emergencies may cause substantial morbidity. Our aims were to characterize the national clinical and economic burden of GI visits to emergency departments (EDs) in the United States.METHODS:We performed an observational cross-sectional study using the 2007 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, the largest US all-payer ED database, to identify the leading causes for ED visits due to GI diseases and their associated charges, stratified by age and sex. Logistic regression was used to analyze predictors of hospitalization after an ED visit.RESULTS:Of the 122 million ED visits in 2007, 15 million (12%) had a primary GI diagnosis. The leading primary GI diagnoses were abdominal pain (4.7 million visits), nausea and vomiting (1.6 million visits), and functional disorders of the digestive system (0.7 million visits). The leading diagnoses differed by age group. The fraction of ED visits resulting in hospitalization was 21.6% for primary GI diagnoses vs. 14.7% for non-GI visits. Women had more ED visits with a primary GI diagnosis than men (58.5 (95% CI 56.0-60.9) vs. 41.6 (95% CI 39.8-43.3) per 1000 persons), but lower rates of subsequent hospitalization (20.0% (95% CI 19.4-20.7%) vs. 24.0% (95% CI 23.3-24.6%)). There were no differences in hospitalization rates between sexes after adjustment by age, primary GI diagnosis, and Charlson Comorbidity Score. The total charges for ED visits with a primary GI diagnosis in 2007 were $27.9 billion.CONCLUSIONS:GI illnesses account for substantial clinical and economic burdens on US emergency medical services. © 2013 by the American College of Gastroenterology.

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