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Zahur M.,University of Gujrat | Afroz A.,University of Gujrat | Rashid U.,University of Gujrat | Khaliq S.,University of Health Sciences, Lahore | Khaliq S.,Institute of Clinical Chemistry UMG Laboratories
Current Protein and Peptide Science | Year: 2014

The most prevalent skin infections are mainly caused by species of dermatophytes of the genera Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton that infect keratinized tissues and stratum corneum of skin and hair. Besides proteases with putative role of kinases and other enzymes, immune modulators are abundantly secreted during infection as well. The molecular mechanism used by the dermatophytes to infect and counteract the host immune response is not well understood. The defense against infections basically depends on the host's immune responses to metabolites of the fungi, virulence of the infecting strain or species and anatomical site of the infection. The two aspects of the immune system, the immediate hypersensitivity and delayed-type hypersensitivity against dermatophytes may be crucial to the progression and severity of skin infection. Management of the infection through species identification and molecular diagnostic techniques as well as use of novel targeted drugs in addition to conventional anti-fungal compounds is of great importance in dealing with disease onsets and outbreaks. Here we reviewed the fungal skin infections elucidating their biologic and immunologic characteristics. Reaction to fungal invasion by the infected epithelial tissue on the host side is also discussed. Moreover, determinants of protective immunity and treatment options are focused that could confer long-lasting resistance to infection. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers. Source


Firasat S.,Institute of Clinical Chemistry UMG Laboratories | Firasat S.,University of Wah | Hecker M.,University of Heidelberg | Binder L.,Institute of Clinical Chemistry UMG Laboratories | Asif A.R.,Institute of Clinical Chemistry UMG Laboratories
Expert Review of Proteomics | Year: 2014

The vascular endothelium lining the luminal surface of all blood vessels is constantly exposed to shear stress exerted by the flowing blood. Blood flow with high laminar shear stress confers protection by activation of antiatherogenic, antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory proteins, whereas low or oscillatory shear stress may promote endothelial dysfunction, thereby contributing to cardiovascular disease. Despite the usefulness of proteomic techniques in medical research, however, there are relatively few reports on proteome analysis of cultured vascular endothelial cells employing conditions that mimic in vivo shear stress attributes. This review focuses on the proteome studies that have utilized cultured endothelial cells to identify molecular mediators of shear stress and the roles they play in the regulation of endothelial function, and their ensuing effect on vascular function in general. It provides an overview on current strategies in shear stress-related proteomics and the key proteins mediating its effects which have been characterized so far. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

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