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Edghill E.L.,Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science | Minton J.A.L.,Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science | Groves C.J.,University of Oxford | Flanagan S.E.,Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science | And 9 more authors.
Journal of the Pancreas | Year: 2010

Context: Approximately 39% of cases with permanent neonatal diabetes (PNDM) and about 11% with maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) have an unknown genetic aetiology. Many of the known genes causing MODY and PNDM were identified as being critical for beta cell function before their identification as a cause of monogenic diabetes. Objective: We used nominations from the EU beta cell consortium EURODIA project partners to guide gene candidacy. Subjects Seventeen cases with permanent neonatal diabetes and 8 cases with maturity onset diabetes of the young. Main outcome measures: The beta cell experts within the EURODIA consortium were asked to nominate 3 "gold", 3 "silver" and 4 "bronze" genes based on biological or genetic grounds. We sequenced twelve candidate genes from the list based on evidence for candidacy. Results: Sequencing ISL1, LMX1A, MAFA, NGN3, NKX2.2, NKX6.1, PAX4, PAX6, SOX2, SREBF1, SYT9 and UCP2 did not identify any pathogenic mutations. Conclusion: Further work is needed to identify novel causes of permanent neonatal diabetes and maturity onset diabetes of the young utilising genetic approaches as well as further candidate genes. Source

Alonso-Perez E.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Hospital Clinico Universitario Of Santiago | Suarez-Gestal M.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Hospital Clinico Universitario Of Santiago | Calaza M.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Hospital Clinico Universitario Of Santiago | Ordi-Ros J.,Research Laboratory in Autoimmune Diseases | And 35 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Introduction: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) shows a spectrum of clinical manifestations that complicate its diagnosis, treatment and research. This variability is likely related with environmental exposures and genetic factors among which known SLE susceptibility loci are prime candidates. The first published analyses seem to indicate that this is the case for some of them, but results are still inconclusive and we aimed to further explore this question. Methods: European SLE patients, 1444, recruited at 17 centres from 10 countries were analyzed. Genotypes for 26 SLE associated SNPs were compared between patients with and without each of 11 clinical features: ten of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria (except ANAs) and age of disease onset. These analyses were adjusted for centre of recruitment, top ancestry informative markers, gender and time of follow-up. Overlap of samples with previous studies was excluded for assessing replication. Results: There were three new associations: the SNPs in XKR6 and in FAM167A-BLK were associated with lupus nephritis (OR = 0.76 and 1.30, Pcorr = 0.007 and 0.03, respectively) and the SNP of MECP2, which is in chromosome X, with earlier age of disease onset in men. The previously reported association of STAT4 with early age of disease onset was replicated. Some other results were suggestive of the presence of additional associations. Together, the association signals provided support to some previous findings and to the characterization of lupus nephritis, autoantibodies and age of disease onset as the clinical features more associated with SLE loci. Conclusion: Some of the SLE loci shape the disease phenotype in addition to increase susceptibility to SLE. This influence is more prominent for some clinical features than for others. However, results are only partially consistent between studies and subphenotype specific GWAS are needed to unravel their genetic component. © 2012 Alonso-Perez et al. Source

Alonso-Perez E.,Health Research Institute Clinic Hospital of Santiago | Suarez-Gestal M.,Health Research Institute Clinic Hospital of Santiago | Calaza M.,Health Research Institute Clinic Hospital of Santiago | Blanco F.J.,University of La Coruna | And 33 more authors.
Arthritis Research and Therapy | Year: 2014

Introduction: We aimed to replicate a recent study which showed higher genetic risk load at 15 loci in men than in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This difference was very significant, and it was interpreted as indicating that men require more genetic susceptibility than women to develop SLE.Methods: Nineteen SLE-associated loci (thirteen of which are shared with the previous study) were analyzed in 1,457 SLE patients and 1,728 healthy controls of European ancestry. Genetic risk load was calculated as sex-specific sum genetic risk scores (GRSs).Results: Our results did not replicate those of the previous study at either the level of individual loci or the global level of GRSs. GRSs were larger in women than in men (4.20 ± 1.07 in women vs. 3.27 ± 0.98 in men). This very significant difference (P < 10-16) was more dependent on the six new loci not included in the previous study (59% of the difference) than on the thirteen loci that are shared (the remaining 41%). However, the 13 shared loci also showed a higher genetic risk load in women than in men in our study (P = 6.6 × 10-7), suggesting that heterogeneity of participants, in addition to different loci, contributed to the opposite results.Conclusion: Our results show the lack of a clear trend toward higher genetic risk in one of the sexes for the analyzed SLE loci. They also highlight several limitations of assessments of genetic risk load, including the possibility of ascertainment bias with loci discovered in studies that have included mainly women. © 2014 Alonso-Perez et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Alonso-Perez E.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Suarez-Gestal M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Calaza M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Witte T.,Hannover Medical School | And 17 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with a very varied spectrum of clinical manifestations that could be partly determined by genetic factors. We aimed to determine the relationship between prevalence of 11 clinical features and age of disease onset with European population genetic substructure. Data from 1413 patients of European ancestry recruited in nine countries was tested for association with genotypes of top ancestry informative markers. This analysis was done with logistic regression between phenotypes and genotypes or principal components extracted from them. We used a genetic additive model and adjusted for gender and disease duration. Three clinical features showed association with ancestry informative markers: autoantibody production defined as immunologic disorder (P = 6.8×10 -4), oral ulcers (P = 6.9×10 -4) and photosensitivity (P = 0.002). Immunologic disorder was associated with genotypes more common in Southern European ancestries, whereas the opposite trend was observed for photosensitivity. Oral ulcers were specifically more common in patients of Spanish and Portuguese self-reported ancestry. These results should be taken into account in future research and suggest new hypotheses and possible underlying mechanisms to be investigated. A first hypothesis linking photosensitivity with variation in skin pigmentation is suggested. © 2011 Alonso-Perez et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Usiakova Z.,Oncology Clinic | Mikulova V.,Institute of Clinical Biochemistry | Pinterova D.,Charles University | Brychta M.,Radiotherapy and Oncology Clinic | And 5 more authors.
In Vivo | Year: 2014

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are an independent prognostic factor for patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). However, the role of CTCs in early breast cancer management is not yet clearly defined. The aim of this study was to assess the CTC-positivity rate in patients undergoing chemotherapy depending on breast cancer stage in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant setting. We evaluated the ability to confirm therapy response by CTC analysis. Patients and Methods: CTCs isolated from blood by means of immunomagnetic separation were further characterized by means of reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM), mucin 1 (MUC1) and v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (HER2) transcripts with the AdnaTest™. This prospective study included 179 patients; altogether 419 blood samples were evaluated. Patients with primary tumors were divided into neoadjuvant (n=38), and adjuvant (n=100) groups. Forty-one patients with MBC were evaluated under palliative treatment. Results: CTC positivity was described in 35% of patients with early breast cancer without detected metastases before neoadjuvant chemotherapy; similarly, a 26% positivity rate was found in the adjuvant group. In patients with MBC, we detected CTCs in 43% of them. After completing the therapy, the CTC positivity rate decreased to 5% in the neoadjuvant group, to 13% in the adjuvant group and to 12% in the MBC group. CTC positivity after the therapy may classify a subgroup of patients at high risk of developing metastatic disease. This was even true when a patient was evaluated as being CTC-negative before chemotherapy. The multivariate analysis evaluating the correlation of CTC positivity with clinicopathological characteristics such as tumor size, nodal involvement, hormone receptor status, HER2 expression and number of metastatic sites revealed no statistically significant relationships. Conclusion: CTC status may have a significant impact on early BC management. Source

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