Institute Of Ciencia I Tecnologia Ambientals

Institute Of Ciencia I Tecnologia Ambientals

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Macura B.,Institute Of Ciencia I Tecnologia Ambientals | Zorondo-Rodriguez F.,Institute Of Ciencia I Tecnologia Ambientals | Grau-Satorras M.,Institute Of Ciencia I Tecnologia Ambientals | Demps K.,French Institute of Pondicherry | And 3 more authors.
Ecology and Society | Year: 2011

The success of long-term sustainable management of natural resources depends on local people's support. Assessing local people's attitudes, taking into account their needs, and respecting their opinions should become a management priority. In India, in the last 20 years, community needs and aspirations in forest management were handled through Joint Forest Management with varying degrees of success. Recently, the Forest Rights Act (2006) was passed to recognize and vest forest rights in forest dwelling communities. This major policy development is still in implementation, but little is known about how this devolution process will affect people's attitudes toward forests. In this paper, we analyze associations between attitudes toward state controlled forests (Reserved Forests) and (i) awareness about the Forest Right Act, (ii) attitudes toward the State Forest Department, and (iii) participation in forest management groups of mostly tribal forest dwellers in the district of Kodagu (Karnataka). We collected information with a structured questionnaire among 247 villagers living under three different land tenure and management regimes: (1) private coffee plantations, (2) Reserved Forest, and (3) National Park. The results of the multivariate analyses show that people are more likely to appreciate Reserved Forests if they have more knowledge about the Forest Rights Act and if they have positive attitudes toward the State Forest Department. A sobering result in our sample is that participation in formal forest management groups is negatively associated to attitudes toward Reserved Forests, suggesting the Joint Forest Management model doesn't necessarily help the transition from coercion to consent. Increasing local people awareness about their rights and improving their relations with the formal forest stewards remain priorities for sustainable forest management to emerge in India. © 2011 by the author(s).

Dulaquais G.,Institut Universitaire de France | Boye M.,Institut Universitaire de France | Middag R.,Netherlands Institute for Sea Research | Middag R.,University of Otago | And 8 more authors.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles | Year: 2015

Dissolved cobalt (DCo; <0.2μm; 14 to 93 pM) and the apparent particulate cobalt (PCo; >0.2μm; <1 to 15 pM) were determined in the upper water column (<1000m) of the western Atlantic Ocean along the GEOTRACES-A02 section (64N to 50S). The lowest DCo concentrations, typical of a nutrient-type distribution were observed in surface waters of the subtropical domains. Strong linear relationships between DCo and phosphate (P) as well as meridional gradients of decreasing DCo from high latitudes were characterized and both linked to the Co biological requirement. External sources such as the Amazon and the atmospheric deposition were found to contribute significantly (>10%) to the DCo stock of the mixed layer in the equatorial and north subtropical domains. Biotic and abiotic processes as well as the physical terms involved in the biogeochemical cycle of Co were defined and estimated. This allowed establishing the first global budget of DCo for the upper 100m in the western Atlantic. The biological DCo uptake flux was the dominant sink along the section, as reflected by the overall nutrient-type behavior of DCo. The regeneration varied widely within the different biogeochemical domains, accounting for 10% of the DCo-uptake rate in the subarctic gyre and for up to 85% in southern subtropical domain. These findings demonstrated that the regeneration is likely the prevailing source of DCo in the surface waters of the western Atlantic, except in the subpolar domains where physically driven sources can sustain the DCo biological requirement. Key Points Surface biogeochemical cycle of cobalt assessed in the western Atlantic OceanRecycling sustain the biological requirement for cobalt in subtropical domainsThe atmospheric and Amazon inputs affect the cobalt distribution ©2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Martinez-Boubeta C.,ICMAB CSIC | Martinez-Boubeta C.,University of Barcelona | Balcells L.,ICMAB CSIC | Cristofol R.,IIBB | And 12 more authors.
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine | Year: 2010

A one-step process for the production of nanoparticles presenting advanced magnetic properties can be achieved using vapor condensation. In this article, we report on the fabrication of Fe particles covered by a uniform MgO epitaxial shell. MgO has a lower surface energy than Fe, which results in a core-shell crystal formation. The particles satisfy a few of technical requirements for the practical use in real clinics, such as a high biocompatibility in living cells in-vitro, an injection through blood vessels without any clothing problems in murine model, a high absorption rate for magnetic hyperthermia at small particle concentration, and the potential to be used as contrast agent in the field of diagnostic magnetic imaging. They are also able to be used in drug delivery and magnetic-activated cell sorting. From the Clinical Editor: In this paper, the authors report on the synthesis of Fe particles covered by a uniform MgO epitaxial shell resulting in a core-shell crystal formation. The particles are proven to be useful as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging and have the potential to be useful as heating mediators for cancer therapy through hyperthermia. They also might be used in drug delivery and magnetic-activated cell sorting. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Munoz-Rojas J.,James Hutton Institute | Nijnik M.,James Hutton Institute | Gonzalez-Puente M.,James Hutton Institute | Gonzalez-Puente M.,Institute Of Ciencia I Tecnologia Ambientals | And 2 more authors.
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2015

The policy and planning framework for land use in Scotland has undergone major changes since political devolution began in 1998. The latest reforms have set numerous objectives related to semi-natural, rural and urban landscapes, with a key role attributed to the expansion of corridors and networks. In this paper, we examine the feasibility of the Scottish forest policy and planning framework to drive "the right trees in the right places", and support the implementation of a spatially and ecologically coherent and multi-functional network of forest and woodland corridors and patches, using North East Scotland as case study. We provide empirical evidence of the lags related to the coherence and consistency of the existing policy and planning framework. We argue that spatially-explicit policy and planning instruments and a stronger degree of coordination amongst institutions and actors operating across policy levels and spatial-temporal scales are needed. We conclude by proposing some pathways forward. It is deemed that through the adoption of such pathways, forest and woodland networks and corridors will not only be targeted at where their multi-functional capabilities can render higher results, but that this can contribute to achieving key challenges of the Scottish territorial policy framework: the gaps between urban and rural planning, and between land ownership and public rights. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Scussolini P.,VU University Amsterdam | Marino G.,Institute Of Ciencia I Tecnologia Ambientals | Marino G.,Australian National University | Brummer G.-J.A.,VU University Amsterdam | And 2 more authors.
Geology | Year: 2015

Salty and warm Indian Ocean waters enter the South Atlanticvia the Agulhas leakage, south of Africa. Model simulations andproxy evidence of Agulhas leakage strengthening during glacial terminationsled to the hypothesis that it was an important modulator ofthe Atlantic Ocean circulation. Yet, the fate of the leakage salinity andtemperature anomalies remains undocumented beyond the southerntip of Africa. Downstream of the leakage, new paleoceanographicevidence from the central Walvis Ridge (southeast Atlantic) showsthat salinity increased at the thermocline, and less so at the surface,during glacial termination II. Thermocline salinity change coincidedwith higher frequency of Agulhas rings passage at the core locationand with salinity maxima in the Agulhas leakage area, suggesting thatleakage waters were incorporated in the Atlantic circulation throughthe thermocline. Hydrographic changes at the Walvis Ridge and inthe leakage area display a distinct two-step structure, with a reversalat ca. 134 ka. This matched a wet interlude within the East Asia weakmonsoon interval of termination II, and a short-lived North Atlanticwarming. Such concurrence points to a Bølling-Allerød-like recoveryof the Atlantic circulation amidst termination II, with a northwardshift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and Southern Hemispherewesterlies, and attendant curtailment of the interocean connectionsouth of Africa. © 2015 Geological Society of America.

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