Shatin, Hong Kong
Shatin, Hong Kong

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Siu W.S.,Institute of Chinese Medicine | Siu W.S.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Ko C.H.,Institute of Chinese Medicine | Ko C.H.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | And 8 more authors.
Molecular Medicine Reports | Year: 2013

Pharmaceutical countermeasures to treat disuse osteoporosis are rarely studied. Pharmaceutical studies for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis depend on the ovariectomized rat model, which is a suitable model for the disease in women. Disuse osteoporosis affects men and women, but there is lack of awareness and relevant pharmaceutical studies for this condition. The objectives of this study were to verify the validity of an unusual tail-suspension rat model in the induction of disuse osteoporosis and subsequent pharmaceutical treatments. This model was created by unloading the hind limbs of the rats in order to create a state of weightlessness in their hindlimb bones. Validation of the model was performed with non-suspended rats. This study included five groups of suspended rats fed with different agents, such as distilled water (control), high-, medium- and low-dose raloxifene and a bisphosphonate (alendronate). The experiment lasted for 28 days. Comparisons were made between the suspended control and treatment groups. Ovariectomized and sham-operated rats were also included as a reference for bone changes during osteoporosis. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) at the distal femur and proximal tibia, microarchitecture at the distal femur and biomechanical strength at the diaphyseal femur were studied. Reduction of BMD and deterioration of trabeculae were similar between the suspended control and ovariectomized rats. Loss of BMD induced by tail suspension was reduced most effectively by medium-dose raloxifene. Deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture was also prevented by raloxifene. The tail-suspension rat model is suitable for the study of disuse osteoporosis under the effects of various therapeutic agents. The preventive effects of raloxifene against bone loss under disuse conditions have been demonstrated using this model.


Kwok T.,Prince of Wales Hospital | Leung P.C.,Institute of Chinese Medicine | Lam C.,CUHK | Ho S.,Community and Family Medicine | And 3 more authors.
Complementary Therapies in Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) and Gegen (Radix puerariae) (D&G) are two herbs frequently used for the treatment of angina and other cardiac symptoms in Chinese materia medica. Recent studies have demonstrated their cardio-protective and anti-atherosclerosis effects. Earlier we have conducted two clinical trials in 2004 and 2007 which demonstrated such effects in extremely high risk patients. Study objective: The aim of the study was to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of D&G in the prevention of atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women with early hypercholesterolemia. Design: The study was designed as a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial with a 12-month treatment period. Subject: A population based sample of 165 postmenopausal women aged 47-65 were included in the trial. Only women who experienced menopause for more than 12 months were recruited. Interventions: The eligible subjects were randomized to take the D&G preparation (two capsules), or image-identical placebo capsules (two capsules) daily, in a double-blind and parallel fashion for 12 month. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Institute of Chinese Medicine and CAS Kunming Institute of Botany
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015

Cancer cells acquire invasive ability to degrade and adhere to extracellular matrix (ECM) and migrate to adjacent tissues. This ultimately results metastasis. Hence, the present study investigated the in vitro effects of cyclopeptide glycoside, RA-XII on cell adhesion, invasion, proliferation and matrix degradation, and its underlying mechanism in murine breast tumour cells, 4T1. The effect of RA-XII on tumour growth and metastasis in 4T1-bearing mice was also investigated. Our results showed that RA-XII inhibited tumour cell adhesion to collagen, fibronectin and laminin, RA-XII also reduced the expressions of vascular cell adhesion molecule, intracellular adhesion molecule and integrins, and integrin binding. In addition, RA-XII significantly inhibited breast tumour cell migration via interfering cofilin signaling and chemokine receptors. The activities of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and urokinase-type of plasminogen activator, and the expressions of ECM-associated proteinases were attenuated significantly by RA-XII. Furthermore, RA-XII induced G1 phase arrest and inhibited the expressions of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. RA-XII inhibited the expressions of molecules in PI3K/AKT, NF-kappaB, FAK/pSRC, MAPK and EGFR signaling. RA-XII was also shown to have anti-tumour, anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic activities in metastatic breast tumour-bearing mice. These findings strongly suggested that RA-XII is a potential anti-metastatic agent for breast cancer.


PubMed | Institute of Chinese Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems | Year: 2012

Multidrug resistance is a major problem in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hedyotiscone A, a compound isolated from Chinese herbal medicine Hedyotis corymbosa (HC, family Rubiaceae), was used as the chemical marker to distinguish between HC and an anticancer herb Hedyotis diffusa (HD) in our previous study. The present study aimed to investigate whether HA exhibited antiproliferative activities in multidrug-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells R-HepG2 and the parental cells HepG2 using MTT assay and [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation assay. Our results showed that HA could significantly inhibit cell proliferation in R-HepG2 and HepG2 (IC(50)=43.7 and 56.3 g/mL, respectively), but not in normal human liver cells WRL-68 (IC(50) > 100 g/mL) cells, suggesting its selective cytotoxic effects. Besides, HA induced apoptosis in R-HepG2 cells, as confirmed by annexin-V & propidium iodide staining, and DNA fragmentation assay. The caspase cascade was activated as shown by a significant increase of cleaved caspases-3, -7 and -9 in HA-treated R-HepG2 cells. The activities and protein expression of P-glycoprotein as well as mRNA expression of MDR1 were also decreased in HA-treated R-HepG2 cells. Our study demonstrated for the first time the antiproliferative activities of hedyotiscone A in multidrug-resistant R-HepG2 cells. The findings revealed the potential of this compound in treating multidrug-resistant tumor.


Zheng L.,Zhejiang University | Wang R.,Zhejiang University | Chen B.,Institute of Chinese Medicine | Fu C.,Zhejiang University
Life Science Journal | Year: 2013

Although Atractylodes macrocephala is an important economically medicinal plant with a centuries' cultivation history, our understanding of its morphological variation remains rudimentary. Here, in order to generate information on character association, and influence of characters on rhizome yield of cultivated Atractylodes macrocephala, variability, correlation and principal component analysis for 21 morphological characters were studied on 100 morphologically distinct accessions of this medicinal crop. The significant and positive correlation for dry rhizome yield per plant was observed with the largest diameter, number of buds, number of branches and shape of the rhizome, and closely followed by primary branches per plant, plant height, plant crown, and apical lobule length and width of the largest lower leaf. Factor analysis was also used for defining of the determinant factors and the characters constituted in each factor. In Principal component analysis (PCA), the first four main and independent factors could explain 65.75% of the total variation related to main effective characters. Additionally, the results grouped the accessions into two clusters based the scatter plot of principal component analysis defined by the first two axes, which separated accessions with more than two-branched rhizome from other accessions. This characterization on the basis of morphological analysis will help in identification of economically useful accessions for further germplasm conservation programmes and crop improvement.

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