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Wädenswil, Switzerland

Schlieben P.,Free University of Berlin | Meyer A.,Free University of Berlin | Weise C.,Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry | Bondzio A.,Free University of Berlin | And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Journal

Cutaneous mast cell tumours (MCTs) are the most common skin tumours in dogs. However, the molecular differences between benign tumours with a good prognosis and highly malignant, invasive and metastatic tumours with short survival times are for the most part unclear. In the present study the proteome of low-grade MCTs with a good prognosis was compared with that of poor-prognosis high-grade tumours independent of their mutational status of exon 11 of the KIT gene.Using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, 13 proteins with a significant differential expression between the two groups were identified. Four stress response proteins (HSPA9, PDIA3, TCP1A and TCP1E) were significantly up-regulated in high-grade tumours, while proteins mainly associated with cell motility and metastasis had either increased (WDR1, ACTR3, ANXA6) or decreased (ANXA2, ACTB) expression levels. High-grade tumours also had a paradox down-regulation of transferrin, a protein that is usually up-regulated in neoplastic cells. The histologically observable dedifferentiation of high-grade tumours was reflected by decreased tryptase protein expression levels. Results of quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that the differences in protein expression levels of most proteins were regulated at the transcript level. Based on these findings, it is hypothesized that high-grade MCT cells have a higher resistance to cellular stress and thus are able to better cope with the adverse environment in highly proliferating tumours independent of increased KIT signalling. It is noteworthy that some of the proteins identified have been proposed as therapeutic targets for human oncology and it will be interesting to evaluate their therapeutic and diagnostic potential for canine MCTs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Hofer M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Falk M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Komurkova D.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Falkova I.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

Amifostine protects normal cells from DNA damage induction by ionizing radiation or chemotherapeutics, whereas cancer cells typically remain uninfluenced. While confirming this phenomenon, we have revealed by comet assay and currently the most sensitive method of DNA double strand break (DSB) quantification (based on γH2AX/53BP1 high-resolution immunofluorescence microscopy) that amifostine treatment supports DSB repair in γ-irradiated normal NHDF fibroblasts but alters it in MCF7 carcinoma cells. These effects follow from the significantly lower activity of alkaline phosphatase measured in MCF7 cells and their supernatants as compared with NHDF fibroblasts. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry confirmed that the amifostine conversion to WR-1065 was significantly more intensive in normal NHDF cells than in tumor MCF cells. In conclusion, due to common differences between normal and cancer cells in their abilities to convert amifostine to its active metabolite WR-1065, amifostine may not only protect in multiple ways normal cells from radiation-induced DNA damage but also make cancer cells suffer from DSB repair alteration. © 2016 American Chemical Society. Source

Gschwind S.,ETH Zurich | Aja Montes M.D.L.,Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry | Gunther D.,ETH Zurich
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

In 2011, the European Commission introduced new regulations on how nanomaterials are defined. Since then, researchers have emphasized that more complete characterization of nanoparticles (NPs) includes not just mass and size determinations, but also the determination of the particle number concentrations. In this study, two different sample introduction approaches for the analysis of NP suspensions with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were investigated: pneumatic nebulization (sp-ICP-MS) and microdroplet generation (MDG-ICP-MS). These approaches were compared for the determination of particle number concentrations (PNCs) of gold and silver NP suspensions diluted in either ultra-pure water or citrate solution. For accurate sp-ICP-MS analysis, it is crucial to know the transport efficiency of nebulized sample into the plasma. Here, transport efficiencies, measured by the waste collection method, were 11–14 % for Ag suspensions and 9–11 % for Au. In contrast, the droplet transport efficiency of MDG-ICP-MS was 100 %. Analysis by sp-ICP-MS yielded a lower particle number concentration than expected (only 20–40 % of the expected value), whereas MDG-ICP-MS had NP recoveries up to 80 %. This study indicates that NP reference materials are of major importance for particle number determination and detailed results on particle number concentrations for different suspensions with respect to storage time are discussed. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source

Klopfleisch R.,Free University of Berlin | Klose P.,Free University of Berlin | Weise C.,Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry | Bondzio A.,Free University of Berlin | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research

Mammary tumors are a major health threat to women and female dogs. In both, metastasis of the primary tumor to distant organs is the most common cause of tumor-related death. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms of tumor metastasis are far from being understood, and it is still unknown why some human and canine carcinomas metastasize and others do not. Using 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF-MS we identified 21 proteins with significant changes (fold change >1.5; p < 0.05) in protein expression between metastasizing (n = 6) and nonmetastasizing (n = 6) canine mammary carcinomas. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to identify transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation of protein expression. Up-regulated proteins in metastatic carcinomas included proliferating cell nuclear antigen, ferritin light chain, bomapin, tropomyosin 3, thioredoxin-containing domain C5, adenosin, ornithine aminotransferase, coronin 1A, RAN-binding protein 1,3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1. Down-regulated proteins in metastatic carcinomas included calretinin, myosin, light chain 2, peroxiredoxin 6, maspin, ibrinogen beta chain, vinculin, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, tropomyosin 1, annexin A5, and Rho GTPase activating protein 1. Interestingly, 19 of these 21 proteins have been described with a malignancy-associated expression in human breast cancer and other human cancer types before. Further investigations are now necessary to test whether these markers are of prognostic value for canine mammary carcinomas and whether their expression is directly involved in canine mammary carcinogenesis or represent solely a secondary reactive phenotype. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Klose P.,Free University of Berlin | Weise C.,Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry | Bondzio A.,Free University of Berlin | Multhaup G.,Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research

The molecular mechanisms of the development of canine mammary tumors are still incompletely understood. In the present study we hypothesized that there is a malignant progression from normal gland to malignant carcinomas that is associated with a linear change in protein expression. To this end, the proteome of canine normal mammary gland, adenomas, nonmetastatic carcinomas, and metastatic carcinomas was compared. Application of 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF-MS identified 48 proteins with significant changes (fold change >|1.5|; p < 0.05) in expression levels at the different stages of malignant progression. Forty-two of these followed three major stepwise but not linear expression patterns. Thirteen proteins showed the adenoma pattern characterized by a change in protein expression levels during progression from normal gland to adenomas which persisted on the same level at the subsequent stages of malignancy. Nine proteins followed the carcinoma pattern with an up- or down-regulation between adenomas and carcinomas. The majority of 20 proteins followed the metastasis pattern with a significant change of protein expression levels between nonmetastatic and metastatic carcinomas. The present study therefore shows that differences in malignancy are associated with a stepwise but not linear change in protein expression levels, which does not finally confirm or disapprove the existence of a malignant progression in canine mammary tumors. In addition, the acquisition of metastatic potential seems to be associated with the strongest changes in protein expression levels. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

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