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Kantarelis E.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Liu J.,Institute of Chemical Industry of Forestry Products | Yang W.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Blasiak W.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2010

Bamboo is an abundant plant in many Asian countries and especially in China; it has an extremely rapid growing rate, and it can be considered as a sustainable wood resource. In this paper, a comparative study of pyrolysis of bamboo in the presence of high-temperature steam and an inert atmosphere (N 2) as well as characterization of products has been conducted. Evaluation of experimental results showed that faster devolatilization can be achieved in the presence of high-temperature steam. Furthermore, the gas composition indicates interaction of steam with vapors and solid species even at low temperatures. Analysis of the obtained liquid after steam pyrolysis at 797 K revealed that the H/C and O/C ratios in the liquid are 1.54 and 0.16, respectively. The characteristics of the products indicate possible exploitation of derived char as an activated carbon precursor, a reducing agent in metallurgical processes, or a solid fuel for gasification and combustion processes. The composition of the liquid fraction suggests further exploitation as a liquid fuel and/or chemical feedstock. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Xin J.,Washington State University | Zhang P.,Washington State University | Huang K.,Washington State University | Huang K.,Institute of Chemical Industry of Forestry Products | Zhang J.,Washington State University
RSC Advances | Year: 2014

An epoxy based on cinnamic acid (Cin-epoxy) and an anhydride curing agent based on dipentene were prepared. Both products are liquids of low viscosity at room temperature. For the synthesis of the epoxy, cinnamic acid was first converted to a diacid by reacting with maleic anhydride via Friedel-Crafts reaction, followed by allylation of the carboxylic groups and subsequent epoxidation of the allyl double bonds. The curing agent was the Diels-Alder adduct of dipentene and maleic anhydride (DPMA). The chemical structures of Cin-epoxy and DPMA were confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FT-IR and ESI-MS. Non-isothermal curing of Cin-epoxy was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In addition to DPMA, two commercial anhydrides were also used to cure Cin-epoxy and the curing reactivity and properties of cured resins were compared. Thermal mechanical properties and thermal stability of the cured epoxy resins were studied using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. Results showed that Cin-epoxy was slightly more reactive than the bisphenol A type epoxy DER 332 and displayed good dynamic mechanical properties and thermal stability. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Chen Y.,Institute of Chemical Industry of Forestry Products | Chen Y.,Nanjing University | Zheng X.,Nanjing University | Wang X.,Nanjing University | And 3 more authors.
ACS Macro Letters | Year: 2014

A facile synthesis of near-infrared (NIR) luminescent gold cluster-poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hybrid nanogels was developed by in situ reduction of gold salt in the core-hollow and shell-porous PAA nanogels. These Au-PAA nanogels exhibited excellent near-infrared photoluminescence properties and showed targeting potential in the optical imaging of the living body. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Shang Q.,Institute of Chemical Industry of Forestry Products | Zhou Y.,Institute of Chemical Industry of Forestry Products | Xiao G.,Nanjing Southeast University
Journal of Coatings Technology Research | Year: 2014

The present article reports on a simple and convenient method for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces based on silica particles by spraying the as-prepared silica suspension containing silica sol and silica microspheres on the substrate. The morphologies of the silica particulate coatings could be controlled by varying the silica microsphere concentration. The silica particulate coatings as prepared were exceptionally rough and superhydrophilic, with water contact angles less than 5°. The surface silanol groups of the hydrophilic coatings could be functionalized using 1H,1H,2H,2H- perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane to form hydrophobic groups. The resulting surface showed excellent superhydrophobic property with water contact angle up to 165.6 ± 0.9° and sliding angle of 3.5 ± 0.4°. In addition, the superhydrophobicity of the coating possessed a good stability after 3 months of exposure in air for a wide range of pH values. © 2014 American Coatings Association.

Xu J.,Institute of Chemical Industry of Forestry Products | Xu J.,National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Chemical Utilization | Jiang J.,Institute of Chemical Industry of Forestry Products | Jiang J.,National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Chemical Utilization | And 2 more authors.
Green Chemistry | Year: 2012

The objective of this investigation was to find a simple method for the production of phenolic rich products and sugar derivatives (biopolyols) via separation of liquefied lingocellulosic materials. Liquefaction of lignocellulosic materials was conducted in methanol at 180 °C for 15 min with the conversion of raw materials at about 75%. After liquefaction, the liquefied products were separated by addition of a sufficient amount of water. It was found that the hydrophobic phenolics could be largely separated from aqueous solutions. The phenolic products that precipitated from the aqueous phase were mainly composed of phenolic derivatives such as 2-methoxy-4-propyl- phenol and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzoic acid methyl ester. Afterwards, the aqueous solution was distilled under vacuum to remove water and formed a viscous liquid product henceforth termed biopolyol. As evidenced by GC-MS analysis, the biopolyols contained methyl sugar derivatives, including methyl β-d-mannofuranoside, methyl α-d-galactopyranoside, methyl α-d-glucopyranoside, and methyl β-d-glucopyranoside. The effect of glycerol on promotion of the liquefaction reaction was also studied. The yield of residue was significantly decreased from approximately 25 to 12% when a glycerol-methanol mixture was used as solvent rather than methanol. According to the GC-MS analysis, the total content of phenolics and poly-hydroxy compounds (including glycerol and sugar derivatives) in phenolic products and biopolyols was 65.9 and 84.9%, respectively. Therefore, a new method for fractionation of liquefied products was proposed according to the molecular structure of the biomass. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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