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Kaul U.,Fortis Escorts Heart Institute | Bangalore S.,New York University | Seth A.,Fortis Escorts Heart Institute | Arambam P.,Fortis Escorts Heart Institute | And 9 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND The choice of drug-eluting stent in the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease who are undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been debated. Previous studies comparing paclitaxel-eluting stents with stents eluting rapamycin (now called sirolimus) or its analogues (everolimus or zotarolimus) have produced contradictory results, ranging from equivalence between stent types to superiority of everolimus-eluting stents. METHODS We randomly assigned 1830 patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease who were undergoing PCI to receive either a paclitaxel-eluting stent or an everolimus-eluting stent. We used a noninferiority trial design with a noninferiority margin of 4 percentage points for the upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval of the risk difference. The primary end point was target-vessel failure, which was defined as a composite of cardiac death, target-vessel myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven target-vessel revascularization at the 1-year follow-up. RESULTS At 1 year, paclitaxel-eluting stents did not meet the criterion for noninferiority to everolimus-eluting stents with respect to the primary end point (rate of targetvessel failure, 5.6% vs. 2.9%; risk difference, 2.7 percentage points [95% confidence interval, 0.8 to 4.5]; relative risk, 1.89 [95% confidence interval, 1.20 to 2.99]; P = 0.38 for noninferiority). There was a significantly higher 1-year rate in the paclitaxeleluting stent group than in the everolimus-eluting stent group of target-vessel failure (P = 0.005), spontaneous myocardial infarction (3.2% vs. 1.2%, P = 0.004), stent thrombosis (2.1% vs. 0.4%, P = 0.002), target-vessel revascularization (3.4% vs. 1.2%, P = 0.002), and target-lesion revascularization (3.4% vs. 1.2%, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS In patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease undergoing PCI, paclitaxel-eluting stents were not shown to be noninferior to everolimus-eluting stents, and they resulted in higher rates of target-vessel failure, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, and target-vessel revascularization at 1 year. © 2015 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source


Okonta K.E.,University of Ibadan | Agarwal V.,Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases
Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery | Year: 2012

A best evidence topic in cardiothoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'Does Warden's procedure reduce sinus node dysfunction (SND) after surgery for partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection?' Altogether 101 papers were found using the reported search; of which 10 papers provided the best evidence to answer the question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, length of follow-up and results of these studies were tabulated. There was a particular reference to Warden's procedure, avoidance of incision across the cavoatrial junction and the postoperative sinus node status. There was a direct reference to the adoption of Warden's procedure in nine studies while one study emphasized the careful use of incision across the cavoatrial junction as a way of averting postoperative SND. The evidence supports the notion that preservation of the sinus node and its blood supply through the adoption of Warden's technique results in near-absent SND during long-term follow-up. The incidence of SND ranged from 0 to 6.5% when Warden's procedure was used, increasing to 18.1% when the atrial incision was extended across the cavoatrial junction into the superior vena cava and reaching as high as 55% in double-patch repair. The study limitations include the lack of randomized controlled trial, absence of 24 h Holter monitoring in most of the patients and shorter periods of follow-up. © 2012 The Author. Source


Puddu P.E.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Menotti A.,Associazione per le Ricerca Cardiologica | Tolonen H.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Nedeljkovic S.,Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases | Kafatos A.G.,University of Crete
European Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2011

If a few risk factors had predictive power for all-cause mortality in different geographical-cultural areas, then preventive efforts might be concentrated on these. Thirteen potential risk factors were measured in 6,554 men aged 40-59 around 1960 in Northern, Southern and Eastern European areas of the Seven Countries Study. In 40 years 85.3% of men died in the pooled areas (87.9, 81.8 and 87.9% in Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe, respectively). Six risk factors were significant predictors of events in all three areas: directly for age, smoking habits, mean blood pressure, heart rate and ECG abnormalities; inversely for forced expiratory volume. In a pooled model also father and mother life status, socio-economic status, and arm circumference (the last one in an inverse way) had significant coefficients that were not heterogeneous across areas (except for socio-economic status). Serum cholesterol was around significance. ROC curves had values of 0.833, 0.806 and 0.819 respectively in Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe, and 0.827 in the pooled areas. Correlation coefficients between observed and expected cases in deciles of estimated risk were between 0.98 and 0.99. Survivors after 40 years in the lower half of the estimated risk were 10.7, 23.6 and 13.3% in Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe, respectively. Under- or over-estimate of cross-applying risk functions did not exceed 15%. All-cause mortality and survival in middle aged men during 40 years were strongly associated with a few, mainly cardiovascular, risk factors, whose predictive power was similar in different cultures across Europe. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Victor S.M.,Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases
Indian heart journal | Year: 2012

To assess the factors causing delay in attaining DTB time of <90 min. Eighty-five patients who underwent primary PCI from August 2008 to July 2009 were studied. From door-to-balloon, time was divided into 6 stages; any reason for delay was studied. The mean DTB time was 80.5 min (SD = 34.4, median time 75 min, range 30-195). DTB time was <90 min in 76.5%, and DTB time >90 min occurred in 23.5%. Mean door to ECG - 6.5 min (SD = 2.7), mean time for the decision of PCI - 7.5 min (SD = 10.5), mean time taken for the patient's consent - 19.6 min (SD = 17.6), for STEMI team activation - 6.7 min (SD = 7.6), average time for financial process - 39.2 min (SD = 22.9). Average time for sheath to balloon - 5.2 min (SD = 1.7). Hospital related delay occurred in 5%, patient related delay in 80%, both together in 15%. 89.5% of patient related delay was due to delay in giving consent and financial reasons. There was no statistically significant delay for patients presented at morning or night and during the weekdays or weekend. Total mortality was 4.7%. Mortality among <90 min was 3.1%, mortality among >90 min was 10% ('p' = 0.2). With effective hospital strategies, the DTB time of 90 min can be achieved in majority of patients. The chief delay in DTB time in this study was due to a delay in obtaining consent and financial reasons. Copyright © 2012 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


George T.,Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2011

A 70-year-old lady with recurrent flash pulmonary edema and acute coronary syndrome was detected to have bilateral renal artery disease and uncontrolled hypertension. Her right kidney size was 9.3 Χ 3.2 cm [glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 32.65 mL/min], left kidney size was 6.8 Χ 2.9 cm (GFR 12.78 mL/min), with a total GFR of 45.43 mL/min. Angiogram showed significant bilateral atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis and 90% right coronary artery lesion. She underwent successful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of right renal artery lesion. Her serum creatinine of 1.6 mg/dL (GFR 45.43 mL/min) came down to 1.3 mg/dL (GFR 63 mL/min) post procedure and her blood pressure was controlled. She then underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty of right coronary artery lesion. Renal artery stenosis is an important cause of uncontrolled hypertension and progression to chronic kidney disease. An early intervention and prompt revascularization prevents recurrent flash pulmonary edema and end stage kidney failure. Source

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