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Langhorne P.,University of Glasgow | Langhorne P.,Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical science | Bernhardt J.,Florey Neuroscience Institutes | Bernhardt J.,La Trobe University | And 2 more authors.
The Lancet

Stroke is a common, serious, and disabling global health-care problem, and rehabilitation is a major part of patient care. There is evidence to support rehabilitation in well coordinated multidisciplinary stroke units or through provision of early supported provision of discharge teams. Potentially beneficial treatment options for motor recovery of the arm include constraint-induced movement therapy and robotics. Promising interventions that could be beneficial to improve aspects of gait include fitness training, high-intensity therapy, and repetitive-task training. Repetitive-task training might also improve transfer functions. Occupational therapy can improve activities of daily living; however, information about the clinical effect of various strategies of cognitive rehabilitation and strategies for aphasia and dysarthria is scarce. Several large trials of rehabilitation practice and of novel therapies (eg, stem-cell therapy, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, virtual reality, robotic therapies, and drug augmentation) are underway to inform future practice. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Santangeli L.,Wishaw General Hospital | Sattar N.,Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical science | Huda S.S.,Women and Children
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Maternal obesity is of major consequence, affecting every aspect of maternity care including both shorte and longeterm effects on the health of the offspring. Obese mothers are at a higher risk of developing gestational diabetes and preeeclampsia, potentially exposing the foetus to an adverse intrauterine environment. Maternal obesity is linked to foetal macrosomia, resulting in increased neonatal and maternal morbidity. Foetal macrosomia is a result of a change in body composition in the neonate with an increase in both percentage fat and fat mass. Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are associated with childhood obesity, and this effect extends into adulthood. Childhood obesity in turn increases chances of later life obesity, thus type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in the offspring. Further clinical trials of lifestyle and, potentially, pharmacological interventions in obese pregnant women are required to determine whether shorte and longeterm adverse effects for the mother and child can be reduced. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Mischak H.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Delles C.,Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical science | Klein J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Schanstra J.P.,University Paul Sabatier
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease

Use of capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE-MS) technology in proteome analysis has increased, with a focus on the identification of biomarker peptides in clinical proteomics. Among the reported applications, the main focus is on the urinary biomarkers for kidney disease. In this review, we discuss the principal, theoretical, and practical obstacles that are encountered when using CE-MS for the analysis of body fluids for biomarker discovery. We present several examples of a successful application of CE-MS for biomarker discovery in kidney disease, implications for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy evaluation, and will also discuss current challenges and possible future improvements. © 2010 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Source

Dowlatshahi D.,Ottawa Hospital Research Institute | Flaherty M.L.,University of Cincinnati | Ali M.,Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical science | Ali M.,Glasgow Caledonian University | And 2 more authors.

Background: Hematoma expansion (HE) is a surrogate marker in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) trials. However, the amount of HE necessary to produce poor outcomes in an individual is unclear; there is no agreement on a clinically meaningful definition of HE. We compared commonly used definitions of HE in their ability to predict poor outcome as defined by various cutpoints on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Methods: In this cohort study, we analyzed 531 patients with ICH from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive. Primary outcome was mRS at 90 days, dichotomized into 0-3 vs 4-6. Secondary outcomes included other mRS cutpoints and mRS "shift analysis." Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for commonly used HE definitions were calculated. Results: Between 13% and 32% of patients met the commonly used HE definitions. All definitions independently predicted poor outcome; positive predictive values increased with higher growth cutoffs but at the expense of lower sensitivities. All HE definitions showed higher specificity than sensitivity. Absolute growth cutoffs were more predictive than relative cutoffs when mRS 5-6 or 6 was defined as "poor outcome." Conclusion: HE robustly predicts poor outcome regardless of the growth definition or the outcome definition. The highest positive predictive values are obtained when using an absolute growth definition to predict more severe outcomes. Given that only a minority of patients may have clinically relevant HE, hemostatic ICH trials may need to enroll a large number of patients, or select for a population that is more likely to have HE. © 2011 by AAN Enterprises, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Oluleye O.W.,University of Minnesota | Rector T.S.,University of Minnesota | Win S.,University of Minnesota | McMurray J.J.V.,Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical science | And 6 more authors.
Circulation: Heart Failure

Background-Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is common in heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Current AFib stroke risk prediction models include the presence of HF but do not specifically include HFpEF as a risk factor. Whether a history of AFib should be used to identify patients with HFpEF who are at risk has not been established. Methods and Results-Baseline characteristics and outcomes of patients with HFpEF in the Irbesartan in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction Trial were analyzed in relation to AFib. At baseline, 1209 (29.3%) had a history of AFib. Of these 557 (13.5%) had history of AFib alone, whereas 670 (16.2%) had both a history and AFib on ECG; 2901 (70.3%) had neither. There were no significant differences in the risk of stroke between the 2 groups with a history of AFib who did or did not have AFib present on baseline ECG. During a median follow-up of 53 months, a fatal or nonfatal stroke occurred in 6.5% (79/1209) patients with history of AFib compared with 3.9% (114/2901) with no AFib. Having a history of AFib was independently associated with higher risk of stroke (hazard ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-3.2; P<0.0001) compared with those with no history of AFib. Conclusions-In patients with HFpEF, a history of AFib was common and independently associated with increased risk of stroke, regardless of whether AFib was present on ECG. Patients with HFpEF and a history of AFib should be considered at risk. Further studies are needed to determine whether this risk can be safely reduced. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT000095238. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

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