Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus Grcc

Villejuif, France

Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus Grcc

Villejuif, France

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Vetizou M.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus Grcc | Vetizou M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Vetizou M.,University Paris - Sud | Pitt J.M.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus Grcc | And 65 more authors.
Science | Year: 2015

Antibodies targeting CTLA-4 have been successfully used as cancer immunotherapy. We find that the antitumor effects of CTLA-4 blockade depend on distinct Bacteroides species. In mice and patients,Tcell responses specific for B. thetaiotaomicron or B. fragilis were associated with the efficacy of CTLA-4 blockade. Tumors in antibiotic-treated or germ-free mice did not respond to CTLA blockade. This defect was overcome by gavage with B. fragilis, by immunization with B. fragilis polysaccharides, or by adoptive transfer of B. fragilis-specific T cells. Fecal microbial transplantation from humans to mice confirmed that treatment of melanoma patients with antibodies against CTLA-4 favored the outgrowth of B. fragilis with anticancer properties. This study reveals a key role for Bacteroidales in the immunostimulatory effects of CTLA-4 blockade.


Yang H.,University of Paris Descartes | Yang H.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Yang H.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus Grcc | Yang H.,Peking Union Medical College | And 24 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2015

STAT3 is an oncogenic transcription factor with potent immunosuppressive functions. We found that pharmacologic inhibition of STAT3 or its selective knockout in cancer cells improved the tumor growth-inhibitory efficacy of anthracycline-based chemotherapies. This combined effect of STAT3 inhibition/depletion and anthracyclines was only found in tumors growing on immunocompetent (not in immunodeficient) mice. As compared with Stat3-sufficient control tumors, Stat3-/- cancer cells exhibited an increased infiltration by dendritic cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes after chemotherapy. Anthracyclines are known to induce several stress pathways that enhance the immunogenicity of dying and dead cancer cells, thereby stimulating a dendritic cell-dependent and T lymphocyte-mediated anticancer immune response. Among these therapy-relevant stress pathways, Stat3-/- cancer cells manifested one significant improvement, namely an increase in the expression of multiple type-1 interferon-responsive genes, including that of the chemokines Cxcl9 and Cxcl10. This enhanced type-1 interferon response could be suppressed by reintroducing wild-type Stat3 (but not a transactivation-deficient mutant Stat3Y705F) into the tumor cells. This maneuver also abolished the improved chemotherapeutic response of Stat3-/- cancers. Finally, the neutralization of the common type-1 interferon receptor or that of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 (which binds CXCL9 and CXCL10) abolished the difference in the chemotherapeutic response between Stat3-/- and control tumors. Altogether, these results suggest that STAT3 inhibitors may improve the outcome of chemotherapy by enhancing the type-1 interferon response of cancer cells. © 2015 American Association for Cancer Research.


Semeraro M.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus Grcc | Semeraro M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Semeraro M.,University Paris - Sud | Rusakiewicz S.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus Grcc | And 47 more authors.
Science Translational Medicine | Year: 2015

The immunosurveillance mechanisms governing high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB), a major pediatric malignancy, have been elusive. We identify a potential role for natural killer (NK) cells, in particular the interaction between the NK receptor NKp30 and its ligand, B7-H6, in the metastatic progression and survival of HR-NB after myeloablative multimodal chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation. NB cells expressing the NKp30 ligand B7-H6 stimulated NK cells in an NKp30-dependent manner. Serum concentration of soluble B7-H6 correlated with the down-regulation of NKp30, bone marrow metastases, and chemoresistance, and soluble B7-H6 contained in the serum of HR-NB patients inhibited NK cell functions in vitro. The expression of distinct NKp30 isoforms affecting the polarization of NK cell functions correlated with 10-year event-free survival in three independent cohorts of HR-NB in remission from metastases after induction chemotherapy (n = 196, P < 0.001), adding prognostic value to known risk factors such as N-Myc amplification and age >18 months. We conclude that the interaction between NKp30 and B7-H6 may contribute to the fate of NB patients and that both the expression of NKp30 isoforms on circulating NK cells and the concentration of soluble B7-H6 in the serum may be clinically useful as biomarkers for risk stratification.


Pitt J.M.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus Grcc | Pitt J.M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Pitt J.M.,University Paris - Sud | Marabelle A.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus Grcc | And 12 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2016

The tumor microenvironment (TME) is an integral part of cancer. Recognition of the essential nature of the TME in cancer evolution has led to a shift from a tumor cell-centered view of cancer development to the concept of a complex tumor ecosystem that supports tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. Accordingly, novel targets within the TME have been uncovered that can help direct and improve the actions of various cancer therapies, notably immunotherapies that work by potentiating host antitumor immune responses. Here, we review the composition of the TME, how this attenuates immunosurveillance, and discuss existing and potential strategies aimed at targeting cellular and molecular TME components. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


Semeraro M.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus Grcc | Semeraro M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Semeraro M.,University Paris - Sud | Rusakiewicz S.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus Grcc | And 10 more authors.
OncoImmunology | Year: 2015

Until recently, the pathophysiological impact of natural killer (NK) lymphocytes has been largely elusive. Capitalizing on our previous discovery that NK cells mediate immunosurveillance against gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), we have now investigated the potential influence of immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive isoforms of the NK receptor NKp30 on the fate of infants with neuroblastoma. In three independent cohorts of high-risk neuroblastoma, we observed a similar prognostic impact of the ratio of immunostimulatory vs. immunosuppressive NKp30 isoforms. Patients with high-risk neuroblastoma that are in remission after induction chemotherapy have a higher risk of relapse if their circulating and bone marrow NK cells express the preponderantly immunosuppressive NKp30 C isoform, as determined by a robust RT-PCR-based assay. We also found that neuroblastoma cells express the NKp30 ligand B7-H6, which can be shed from the tumor cells. Elevated soluble B7-H6 levels contained in patient sera inhibited NK functions in vitro and correlated with downregulation of NK-p30 on NK cells, as well as with bone marrow metastasis and chemoresistance. Altogether, these results support the contention that NK cells play a decisive role in the immunosurveillance of neuroblastoma. In light of these results, efforts should be undertaken to investigate NK cell functions in all major cancer types, with the obvious expectation of identifying additional NK cell-related prognostic or predictive biomarkers and improving NK cell based immunotherapeutic strategies against cancer. © 2015, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Pitt J.M.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus Grcc | Pitt J.M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Pitt J.M.,University Paris - Sud | Vetizou M.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus Grcc | And 15 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2016

The equilibrium linking the intestinal microbiota, the intestinal epithelium, and the host immune system establishes host health and homeostasis, with perturbations of this balance resulting in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune immunopathologies. The mutualistic symbiosis between gut microbiota and host immunity raises the possibility that dysbiosis of the intestinal content also influences the outcome of cancer immunotherapy. Here, we present our recent findings that specific gut-resident bacteria determine the immunotherapeutic responses associated with CTLA-4 checkpoint blockade. This new evidence hints that interindividual differences in the microbiome may account for the significant heterogeneity in therapeutic and immunopathologic responses to immune checkpoint therapies. We discuss how this new understanding could improve the therapeutic coverage of immune checkpoint inhibitors, and potentially limit their immune-mediated toxicity, through the use of adjunctive "oncomicrobiotics" that indirectly promote beneficial immune responses through optimizing the gut microbiome. Cancer Res; 76(16); 4602-7. © 2016 American Association for Cancer Research.


PubMed | New York University, University Paul Sabatier, Service de microbiologie, University Paris - Sud and 9 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Science (New York, N.Y.) | Year: 2015

Antibodies targeting CTLA-4 have been successfully used as cancer immunotherapy. We find that the antitumor effects of CTLA-4 blockade depend on distinct Bacteroides species. In mice and patients, T cell responses specific for B. thetaiotaomicron or B. fragilis were associated with the efficacy of CTLA-4 blockade. Tumors in antibiotic-treated or germ-free mice did not respond to CTLA blockade. This defect was overcome by gavage with B. fragilis, by immunization with B. fragilis polysaccharides, or by adoptive transfer of B. fragilis-specific T cells. Fecal microbial transplantation from humans to mice confirmed that treatment of melanoma patients with antibodies against CTLA-4 favored the outgrowth of B. fragilis with anticancer properties. This study reveals a key role for Bacteroidales in the immunostimulatory effects of CTLA-4 blockade.


PubMed | Monash University, Paris-Sorbonne University, University of Kiel, Institut Universitaire de France and 12 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Immunity | Year: 2016

The efficacy of the anti-cancer immunomodulatory agent cyclophosphamide (CTX) relies on intestinal bacteria. How and which relevant bacterial species are involved in tumor immunosurveillance, and their mechanism of action are unclear. Here, we identified two bacterial species, Enterococcus hirae and Barnesiella intestinihominis that are involved during CTX therapy. Whereas E.hirae translocated from the small intestine to secondary lymphoid organs and increased the intratumoral CD8/Treg ratio, B.intestinihominis accumulated in the colon and promoted the infiltration of IFN--producing T cells in cancer lesions. The immune sensor, NOD2, limited CTX-induced cancer immunosurveillance and the bioactivity of these microbes. Finally, E.hirae and B.intestinihominis specific-memory Th1 cell immune responses selectively predicted longer progression-free survival in advanced lung and ovarian cancer patients treated with chemo-immunotherapy. Altogether, E.hirae and B.intestinihominis represent valuable oncomicrobiotics ameliorating the efficacy of the most common alkylating immunomodulatory compound.


PubMed | University of Lyon, Giannina Gaslini Hospital, Service de Genetique, University Paris - Sud and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Science translational medicine | Year: 2015

The immunosurveillance mechanisms governing high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB), a major pediatric malignancy, have been elusive. We identify a potential role for natural killer (NK) cells, in particular the interaction between the NK receptor NKp30 and its ligand, B7-H6, in the metastatic progression and survival of HR-NB after myeloablative multimodal chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation. NB cells expressing the NKp30 ligand B7-H6 stimulated NK cells in an NKp30-dependent manner. Serum concentration of soluble B7-H6 correlated with the down-regulation of NKp30, bone marrow metastases, and chemoresistance, and soluble B7-H6 contained in the serum of HR-NB patients inhibited NK cell functions in vitro. The expression of distinct NKp30 isoforms affecting the polarization of NK cell functions correlated with 10-year event-free survival in three independent cohorts of HR-NB in remission from metastases after induction chemotherapy (n = 196, P < 0.001), adding prognostic value to known risk factors such as N-Myc amplification and age >18 months. We conclude that the interaction between NKp30 and B7-H6 may contribute to the fate of NB patients and that both the expression of NKp30 isoforms on circulating NK cells and the concentration of soluble B7-H6 in the serum may be clinically useful as biomarkers for risk stratification.


PubMed | Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus Grcc, French Institute of Health and Medical Research, Karolinska University Hospital and University Paris - Sud
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology | Year: 2016

The tumor microenvironment (TME) is an integral part of cancer. Recognition of the essential nature of the TME in cancer evolution has led to a shift from a tumor cell-centered view of cancer development to the concept of a complex tumor ecosystem that supports tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. Accordingly, novel targets within the TME have been uncovered that can help direct and improve the actions of various cancer therapies, notably immunotherapies that work by potentiating host antitumor immune responses. Here, we review the composition of the TME, how this attenuates immunosurveillance, and discuss existing and potential strategies aimed at targeting cellular and molecular TME components.

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