Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy

Villejuif, France

Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy

Villejuif, France

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Chatre L.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Chatre L.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Biard D.S.F.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Sarasin A.,University Paris - Sud | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

UV-sensitive syndrome (UVSS) and Cockayne syndrome (CS) are human disorders caused by CSA or CSB gene mutations; both conditions cause defective transcription-coupled repair and photosensitivity. Patients with CS also display neurological and developmental abnormalities and dramatic premature aging, and their cells are hypersensitive to oxidative stress. We report CSA/CSB-dependent depletion of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase-γ catalytic subunit (POLG1), due to HTRA3 serine protease accumulation in CS, but not in UVsS or control fibroblasts. Inhibition of serine proteases restored physiological POLG1 levels in either CS fibroblasts and in CSB-silenced cells. Moreover, patient-derived CS cells displayed greater nitroso-redox imbalance than UVSS cells. Scavengers of reactive oxygen species and peroxynitrite normalized HTRA3 and POLG1 levels in CS cells, and notably, increased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, which was altered in CS cells. These data reveal critical deregulation of proteases potentially linked to progeroid phenotypes in CS, and our results suggest rescue strategies as a therapeutic option. © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Vainchenker W.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy | Plo I.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy
Blood | Year: 2015

In this issue of Blood, Chen et al1 and Kameda et al2 demonstrate that Tet2 loss has 2 effects in Jak2V617F mice: it increases both the severity of the myeloproliferative disorders and the self-renewal properties of the Jak2V617F hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

Eggermont A.M.M.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy | Spatz A.,McGill University | Lazar V.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy | Robert C.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy
Current Opinion in Oncology | Year: 2012

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ulceration of a primary cutaneous melanoma has for many years been recognized as a very important prognostic factor associated with increased risk for recurrence and mortality. Patients with an ulcerated melanoma do much worse than patients with a nonulcerated melanoma with the same breslow thickness. Ulceration may indicate a separate biologic entity. RECENT FINDINGS: Gene profiling studies of fresh frozen melanoma samples indicated that ulcerated melanomas have a very different profile. Analysis of the results of the two largest adjuvant interferon (IFN) trials ever conducted in 2644 patients [European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 18952 and 18991], which used ulceration of the primary as a stratification factor, indicated that ulceration was not only a very strong prognostic factor, but more importantly a significant predictive factor for outcome of adjuvant IFN treatment. Only in patients with an ulcerated primary, was a similar and significant impact on disease-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival and overall survival observed. As a more general finding, in trials independent of ulceration used as a stratification factor, this IFN sensitivity of ulcerated melanomas has been reported in a meta-analysis in more than 3000 patients. It was also identified as a predictive factor of outcome in the Sunbelt adjuvant IFN trial in the USA. SUMMARY: These important findings regarding ulceration need biologic studies to identify the differences between ulcerated and nonulcerated melanoma at the molecular level. Moreover, the importance of ulceration will be assessed prospectively in the EORTC 18081 trial in patients with primary ulcerated melanomas more than 1 mm. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Eggermont A.M.M.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy | Robert C.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2011

Current developments in systemic therapies for melanoma are spectacular. Over the last 40 years no one drug or combination of drugs demonstrated any impact on survival in metastatic melanoma. In contrast, in 2011 a number of new drugs will be approved. In 2011 immunomodulation with ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the ligand CTLA-4, has been approved for patients with advanced melanoma in first- and second-line treatment by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and in second-line treatment by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). Also in 2011, a significant survival benefit of the combination of ipilimumab with dacarbazine compared with dacarbazine alone for first-line treatment was reported. Other monoclonal antibodies targeting T-cell ligands, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1), also show promise. Various inhibitors of v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homologue B1 (BRAF) yield high response rates in patients harbouring the BRAF-V600E mutation. A significant impact on both progression-free and overall survival was demonstrated for vemurafenib compared with dacarbazine in a phase-III trial. Approval is expected in 2011. Both drugs had only modest effects of 2-3 months on median survival, so combination therapies must be explored. BRAF inhibitors in combination with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) inhibitors show great potential. Moreover, combinations of immunomodulators and pathway inhibitors are expected to be very active, and phase-III trials are planned. Pegylated interferon-α2b was approved in 2011 on the basis of the results of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 18991 phase-III trial demonstrating a sustained impact on relapse-free survival in patients with lymph-node-positive melanoma. The efficacy of adjuvant therapy with ipilimumab is assessed in the now fully accrued EORTC18071 trial. Adjuvant trials with BRAF and MEK inhibitors are in the planning phase. Never was there a more exciting period in the world of melanoma treatment. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bouwhuis M.G.,Erasmus Medical Center | ten Hagen T.L.M.,Erasmus Medical Center | Eggermont A.M.M.,Erasmus Medical Center | Eggermont A.M.M.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy
Molecular Oncology | Year: 2011

Outcome in melanoma patients with advanced disease is poor and systemic treatment seems to benefit only a subset of patients. Predictive markers identifying these patients are currently not available. Early studies showed an association of immune-related side effects such as vitiligo and autoimmune thyroiditis with response to IL-2 or IFNα treatment. However, conflicting data have been reported as well, mentioning the effect of a higher rate of immune-related toxicities during prolonged administration of the drug in responders. The review discusses the prognostic significance of autoimmunity during various forms of immunotherapy and stresses the importance of correcting for guarantee-time bias. In addition, other immune-related factors which have been associated with melanoma prognosis such as, CRP, white blood cell count, absolute lymphocyte count and human leukocyte antigen will be reviewed as well. A better understanding of the immune system and the host-tumor interactions should ultimately lead to more effective treatment. A major challenge expected to be addressed in future is proving ways to uncouple tumor immunity from autoimmunity. © 2011.

Crocetti L.,University of Pisa | De Baere T.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy | Lencioni R.,University of Pisa
CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology | Year: 2010

The development of image-guided percutaneous techniques for local tumour ablation has been one of the major advances in the treatment of liver malignancies. Among these methods, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is currently established as the primary ablative modality at most institutions. RFA is accepted as the best therapeutic choice for patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) when liver transplantation or surgical resection are not suitable options [1, 2]. In addition, RFA is considered a viable alternate to surgery (1) for inoperable patients with limited hepatic metastatic disease, especially from colorectal cancer, and (2) for patients deemed ineligible for surgical resection because of extent and location of the disease or concurrent medical conditions [3]. These guidelines were written to be used in quality-improvement programs to assess RFA of HCC and liver metastases. The most important processes of care are (1) patient selection, (2) performing the procedure, and (3) monitoring the patient. The outcome measures or indicators for these processes are indications, success rates, and complication rates. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE).

Le Cesne A.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy
Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy | Year: 2013

Trabectedin (Yondelis® [PharmaMar S.A., Madrid, Spain]) is one of the most promising agents tested in the last two decades in patients with anthracycline/ifosfamide-resistant sarcomas and is the first agent highlighting the notion of prolonged tumor control in advanced soft tissue sarcoma. Indeed, the unusual pattern of tumor response to trabectedin has raised queries about the appropriateness of conventional radiological evaluation of efficacy according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors and has prompted the search for new end points for Phase II studies. The safety profile of trabectedin is unique and much more favorable than that of doxorubicin and ifosfamide especially as regards neutropenia and alopecia. Its efficacy in translocation-related sarcomas suggests a targeted approach to tumor control in these sarcoma subtypes. With numerous Phase II and III studies of trabectedin underway, it appears certain that the current standard-of-care paradigm in advanced soft tissue sarcoma is set for change. © 2013 2013 Expert Reviews Ltd.

Harel S.,Service dImmuno Hematologie | Ferme C.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy | Poirot C.,Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere
Haematologica | Year: 2011

The risk of developing premature ovarian failure and azoospermia is a major concern in long-term survivors treated for Hodgkin's lymphoma. Alkylating chemotherapy containing procarbazine and/or cyclophosphamide causes prolonged azoospermia in 90-100% of men and premature ovarian failure in 5-25% of women under the age of 30. The risk of infertility increases with the cumulative dose of alkylating agents and the risk is high after salvage therapy including conditioning and autologous or allogeneic transplantation. The doxorubicin- bleomycin-vinblastine-dacarbazine regimen is associated with a lower risk of gonadal damage; the rate of infertility is less than 10%. The risk of premature ovarian failure is limited after the doxorubicin-bleomycin-vinblastine-dacarbazine regimen. However, age is an important factor; women over 30 years of age are at a much higher risk of ovarian failure. Semen cryopreservation should be routinely offered, especially before initial treatment with bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisolone or salvage therapy with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous transplantation. For women with a stable partner, in vitro fertilization for embryo cryopreservation is a routine procedure but can only be offered to a small number of patients and requires a delay in treatment initiation for at least four weeks. Cryopreservation of mature or immature oocytes remains experimental. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is promising but has so far resulted in only a small number of pregnancies and births. This method, usually involving the removal of an entire ovary, is only proposed before treatment leading to a high risk of infertility. Analogs of LHRH were investigated in order to preserve fertility in women but are not recommended in the absence of studies demonstrating their effectiveness. The risk of secondary infertility should be discussed with patients from the time of the diagnosis and requires multidisciplinary collaboration between hematologists and Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) teams. ©2011 Ferrata Storti Foundation. This is an open-access paper.

Pailler E.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2013

The diagnostic test for ALK rearrangement in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for crizotinib treatment is currently done on tumor biopsies or fine-needle aspirations. We evaluated whether ALK rearrangement diagnosis could be performed by using circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The presence of an ALK rearrangement was examined in CTCs of 18 ALK-positive and 14 ALK-negative patients by using a filtration enrichment technique and filter-adapted fluorescent in situ hybridization (FA-FISH), a FISH method optimized for filters. ALK-rearrangement patterns were determined in CTCs and compared with those present in tumor biopsies. ALK-rearranged CTCs and tumor specimens were characterized for epithelial (cytokeratins, E-cadherin) and mesenchymal (vimentin, N-cadherin) marker expression. ALK-rearranged CTCs were monitored in five patients treated with crizotinib. All ALK-positive patients had four or more ALK-rearranged CTCs per 1 mL of blood (median, nine CTCs per 1 mL; range, four to 34 CTCs per 1 mL). No or only one ALK-rearranged CTC (median, one per 1 mL; range, zero to one per 1 mL) was detected in ALK-negative patients. ALK-rearranged CTCs harbored a unique (3'5') split pattern, and heterogeneous patterns (3'5', only 3') of splits were present in tumors. ALK-rearranged CTCs expressed a mesenchymal phenotype contrasting with heterogeneous epithelial and mesenchymal marker expressions in tumors. Variations in ALK-rearranged CTC levels were detected in patients being treated with crizotinib. ALK rearrangement can be detected in CTCs of patients with ALK-positive NSCLC by using a filtration technique and FA-FISH, enabling both diagnostic testing and monitoring of crizotinib treatment. Our results suggest that CTCs harboring a unique ALK rearrangement and mesenchymal phenotype may arise from clonal selection of tumor cells that have acquired the potential to drive metastatic progression of ALK-positive NSCLC.

Mirghani H.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy | Amen F.,Peterborough City Hospital | Moreau F.,Tenon Hospital | Lacau St Guily J.,Tenon Hospital
Oral Oncology | Year: 2015

High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are an established etiologic factor for a growing number of oropharyngeal cancers. However, their potential role in other upper aerodigestive tract locations is still a matter of debate, particularly in the oral cavity. This is of paramount importance as in the future diagnosis, treatment and follow up in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma may vary according to HPV status. This article reviews the recent published data and highlights some of the pitfalls that have hampered the accurate assessment of HR-HPV oncological role outside the oropharynx. We demonstrate that, in contrast to the oropharynx, only a small fraction of cancers located in the oral cavity seem to be HPV-related even in young non-smoking non-drinking patients. We emphasize several relevant factors to consider in assumed HPV-induced oral cavity cancers and discuss the current theories that explain why HPV-induced cancers arise preferentially in the oropharynx. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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