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Feldman D.R.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Huddart R.,Institute of Cancer Research ICR | Hall E.,Institute of Cancer Research | Beyer J.,Vivantes Krankenhaus Am Urban | Powles T.,Queen Mary, University of London
Journal of Cancer | Year: 2011

Metastatic germ cell tumours (GCTs) are usually cured with cisplatin based chemotherapy and standard treatment algorithms are established. However when this treatment fails and the disease relapses, standard treatment is much more uncertain. Both conventional dose therapy (CDT) and high dose therapy (HDT) are widely used, due to the lack of conclusive data supporting one specific approach. A recent retrospective analysis focusing on this population suggested a significant benefit for HDT. Retrospective analyses are prone to bias, and therefore while this data is provocative it is by no mean conclusive. For this reason the international community is supporting a prospective randomised trial in this area comparing CDT(TIP) with sequential HDT (TICE). The planned open labelled randomised phase III study (TIGER) is due to open in 2011 and will recruit 390 patients to detect a 13% difference in 2 year progression free survival (primary endpoint). It is hoped that this large study will conclusively resolve the uncertainty which currently exists. © Ivyspring International Publisher. Source

Sadanandam A.,Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics | Sadanandam A.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Sadanandam A.,Institute of Cancer Research ICR | Wullschleger S.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | And 16 more authors.
Cancer Discovery | Year: 2015

Seeking to assess the representative and instructive value of an engineered mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET) for its cognate human cancer, we profiled and compared mRNA and miRNA transcriptomes of tumors from both. Mouse PanNET tumors could be classified into two distinctive subtypes, well-differentiated islet/ insulinoma tumors (IT) and poorly differentiated tumors associated with liver metastases, dubbed metastasis-like primary (MLP). Human PanNETs were independently classified into these same two subtypes, along with a third, specific gene mutation–enriched subtype. The MLP subtypes in human and mouse were similar to liver metastases in terms of miRNA and mRNA transcriptome profiles and signature genes. The human/mouse MLP subtypes also similarly expressed genes known to regulate early pancreas development, whereas the IT subtypes expressed genes characteristic of mature islet cells, suggesting different tumorigenesis pathways. In addition, these subtypes exhibit distinct metabolic profiles marked by differential pyruvate metabolism, substantiating the significance of their separate identities. Significance: This study involves a comprehensive cross-species integrated analysis of multi-omics profiles and histology to stratify PanNETs into subtypes with distinctive characteristics. We provide support for the RIP1-TAG2 mouse model as representative of its cognate human cancer with prospects to better understand PanNET heterogeneity and consider future applications of personalized cancer therapy. © 2015 American Association for Cancer Research. Source

Tatton-Brown K.,St Georges, University of London | Rahman N.,Institute of Cancer Research ICR
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics | Year: 2013

NSD1 and EZH2 are SET domain-containing histone methyltransferases that play key roles in the regulation of transcription through histone modification and chromatin modeling: NSD1 preferentially methylates lysine residue 36 of histone 3 (H3K36) and is primarily associated with active transcription, while EZH2 shows specificity for lysine residue 27 (H3K27) and is associated with transcriptional repression. Somatic dysregulation of NSD1 and EZH2 have been associated with tumorigenesis. NSD1, as a fusion transcript with NUP98, plays a key role in leukemogenesis, particularly childhood acute myeloid leukemia. EZH2 is a major proto-oncogene and mono- and biallelic activating and inactivating somatic mutations occur as early events in the development of tumors, particularly poor prognosis hematopoietic malignancies. Constitutional NSD1 and EZH2 mutations cause Sotos and Weaver syndromes respectively, overgrowth syndromes with considerable phenotypic overlap. NSD1 mutations that cause Sotos syndrome are loss-of-function, primarily truncating mutations or missense mutations at key residues in functional domains. EZH2 mutations that cause Weaver syndrome are primarily missense variants and the rare truncating mutations reported to date are in the last exon, suggesting that simple haploinsufficiency is unlikely to be generating the overgrowth phenotype although the exact mechanism has not yet been determined. Many additional questions about the molecular and clinical features of NSD1 and EZH2 remain unanswered. However, studies are underway to address these and, as more cases are ascertained and technology improves, it is hoped that these will, in time, be answered. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Loriot Y.,University Paris - Sud | Fizazi K.,University Paris - Sud | Jones R.J.,University of Glasgow | Van Den Brande J.,University of Antwerp | And 9 more authors.
Investigational New Drugs | Year: 2014

Summary Background: ASP9521 is a first-in-class orally available inhibitor of the enzyme 17 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 (17 βHSD5; AKR1C3), catalysing the conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione into 5-androstenediol and testosterone. It has demonstrated antitumour activity in in vitro and in vivo preclinical models. Material and methods: This first-in-man phase I/II study utilised a 3+3 dose escalation design starting at 30 mg ASP9521/day, with the aim of defining a maximum tolerated dose, as defined by the incidence of dose-limiting toxicities. Eligible patients received ASP9521 orally for 12 weeks. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics and anti-tumour activity were assessed. Results: Thirteen patients (median age: 68 years; range 52-76) with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) progressing after chemotherapy were included; 12 patients discontinued treatment at or before week 13, mainly due to disease progression. The most common adverse events were grade 1/2 and included asthenia (N=5), constipation (N=4), diarrhoea (N=3), back pain (N=3) and cancer pain (N=3). PK demonstrated a half-life (t1/2) ranging from 16 to 35 h, rapid absorption and dose proportionality. No biochemical or radiological responses were identified; neither endocrine biomarker levels nor circulating tumour cell counts were altered by ASP9521. Given the lack of observable clinical activity, the study was terminated without implementing a planned 12-week dose expansion part at selected doses or a planned food-effect study part. Conclusions: In patients with mCRPC, ASP9521 demonstrated dose-proportional increase in exposure over the doses evaluated, with an acceptable safety and tolerability profile. However, the novel androgen biosynthesis inhibitor showed no relevant evidence of clinical activity. © Springer Science+Business Media 2014. Source

Biswas S.,Northumbria University | Wood M.,Northumbria University | Joshi A.,Northumbria University | Bown N.,Northumbria University | And 5 more authors.
Frontiers in Oncology | Year: 2015

Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs) are rare pediatric brain tumors characterized by bialleic loss of the SMARCB1 tumor suppressor gene. In contrast to pediatric AT/RT that has a simple genome, very little is known about the adult AT/RT genomic landscape. Using a combination of whole-exome sequencing and high-resolution SNP array in a single adult pituitary AT/RT, we identified a total of 47 non-synonymous mutations, of which 20 were predicted to cause non-conservative amino acid substitutions, in addition to a subclone of cells with trisomy 8. We suggest that adult AT/RT may not be markedly dissimilar to other adult brain tumors where mutations in a range of genes, reflecting the functional specialization of different brain regions, but including SMARCB1 inactivation, may be required for its pathogenesis. © 2015 Biswas, Wood, Joshi, Bown, Strain, Martinsson, Campbell, Ashworth and Swain. Source

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