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Greaves M.,Institute of Cancer Research
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2014

Around one in three individuals, if they live long enough, will have a confirmed clinical diagnosis of overt cancer, and there is increasing evidence that many of us-I contend all of us-develop covert cancer. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Buckingham M.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Rigby P.W.J.,Institute of Cancer Research
Developmental Cell | Year: 2014

We discuss the upstream regulators of myogenesis that lead to the activation of myogenic determination genes and subsequent differentiation, focusing on the mouse model. Key upstream genes, such as Pax3 and Pax7, Six1 and Six4, or Pitx2, participate in gene regulatory networks at different sites of skeletal muscle formation. MicroRNAs also intervene, with emerging evidence for the role of other noncoding RNAs. Myogenic determination and subsequent differentiation depend on members of the MyoD family. We discuss new insights into mechanisms underlying the transcriptional activity of these factors. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Dowsett M.,Institute of Cancer Research
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2013

Risk of distant recurrence (DR) among women with estrogen receptor (ER) -positive early breast cancer is the major determinant of recommendations for or against chemotherapy. It is frequently estimated using the Oncotype DX recurrence score (RS). The PAM50 risk of recurrence (ROR) score provides an alternative approach, which also identifies intrinsic subtypes. mRNA from 1,017 patients with ER-positive primary breast cancer treated with anastrozole or tamoxifen in the ATAC trial was assessed for ROR using the NanoString nCounter. Likelihood ratio (LR) tests and concordance indices (c indices) were used to assess the prognostic information provided beyond that of a clinical treatment score (CTS) by RS, ROR, or IHC4, an index of DR risk derived from immunohistochemical assessment of ER, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki67. ROR added significant prognostic information beyond CTS in all patients (Δ LR-χ(2) = 33.9; P < .001) and in all four subgroups: node negative, node positive, HER2 negative, and HER2 negative/node negative; more information was added by ROR than by RS. C indices in the HER2-negative/node-negative subgroup were 0.73, 0.76, and 0.78 for CTS, CTS plus RS, and CTS plus ROR, respectively. More patients were scored as high risk and fewer as intermediate risk by ROR than by RS. Relatively similar prognostic information was added by ROR and IHC4 in all patients but more by ROR in the HER2-negative/node-negative group. ROR provides more prognostic information in endocrine-treated patients with ER-positive, node-negative disease than RS, with better differentiation of intermediate- and higher-risk groups.

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the major pediatric cancer diagnosed in economically developed countries with B-cell precursor (BCP)-ALL, accounting for approximately 70% of ALL. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided the first unambiguous evidence for common inherited susceptibility to BCP-ALL, identifying susceptibility loci at 7p12.2, 9p21.3, 10q21.2, and 14q11.2. To identify additional BCP-ALL susceptibility loci, we conducted a GWAS and performed a meta-analysis with a published GWAS totaling 1658 cases and 4723 controls, with validation in 1449 cases and 1488 controls. Combined analysis identified novel loci mapping to 10p12.2 (rs10828317, odds ratio [OR] = 1.23; P = 2.30 × 10(-9)) and 10p14 marked by rs3824662 (OR = 1.31; P = 8.62 × 10(-12)). The single nucleotide polymorphism rs10828317 is responsible for the N215S polymorphism in exon 7 of PIP4K2A, and rs3824662 localizes to intron 3 of the transcription factor and putative tumor suppressor gene GATA3. The rs10828317 association was shown to be specifically associated with hyperdiploid ALL, whereas the rs3824662-associated risk was confined to nonhyperdiploid non-TEL-AML1 + ALL. The risk allele of rs3824662 was correlated with older age at diagnosis (P < .001) and significantly worse event-free survivorship (P < .0001). These findings provide further insights into the genetic and biological basis of inherited genetic susceptibility to BCP-ALL and the influence of constitutional genotype on disease development.

The authors examined the effect of women's lifestyles on the timing of natural menopause using data from a cross-sectional questionnaire used in the United Kingdom-based Breakthrough Generations Study in 2003-2011. The analyses included 50,678 women (21,511 who had experienced a natural menopause) who were 40-98 years of age at study entry and did not have a history of breast cancer. Cox competing risks proportional hazards models were fitted to examine the relation of age at natural menopause to lifestyle and anthropometric factors. Results were adjusted for age at reporting, smoking status at menopause, parity, and body mass index at age 40 years, as appropriate. All P values were 2-sided. High adult weight (Ptrend < 0.001), high body mass index (Ptrend < 0.001), weight gain between the ages of 20 and 40 years (Ptrend = 0.01), not smoking (P < 0.001), increased alcohol consumption (Ptrend < 0.001), regular strenuous exercise (P < 0.01), and not being a vegetarian (P < 0.001) were associated with older age at menopause. Neither height nor history of an eating disorder was associated with menopausal age. These findings show the importance of lifestyle factors in determining menopausal age. American Journal of Epidemiology © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved.

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