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Novakova Z.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Novakova Z.,Institute of Animal Science | Hubackova S.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Kosar M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | And 13 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2010

Cellular senescence guards against cancer and modulates aging; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we show that genotoxic drugs capable of inducing premature senescence in normal and cancer cells, such as 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU), distamycin A (DMA), aphidicolin and hydroxyurea, persistently activate Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling and expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), such as MX1, OAS, ISG15, STAT1, PML, IRF1 and IRF7, in several human cancer cell lines. JAK1/STAT-activating ligands, interleukin 10 (IL10), IL20, IL24, interferon γ (IFNγ), IFNΒ and IL6, were also expressed by senescent cells, supporting autocrine/paracrine activation of JAK1/STAT. Furthermore, cytokine genes, including proinflammatory IL1, tumor necrosis factor and transforming growth factor families, were highly expressed. The strongest inducer of JAK/STAT signaling, cytokine production and senescence was BrdU combined with DMA. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of JAK1 abolished expression of ISGs, but not DNA damage signaling or senescence. Thus, although DNA damage signaling, p53 and RB activation, and the cytokine/chemokine secretory phenotype are apparently shared by all types of senescence, our data reveal so far unprecedented activation of the IFNΒ-STAT1-ISGs axis, and indicate a less prominent causative role of IL6-JAK/STAT signaling in genotoxic drug-induced senescence compared with reports on oncogene-induced or replicative senescence. These results highlight shared and unique features of drug-induced cellular senescence, and implicate induction of cancer secretory phenotype in chemotherapy. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Kusk K.O.,Technical University of Denmark | Kruger T.,University of Aarhus | Long M.,University of Aarhus | Taxvig C.,Technical University of Denmark | And 7 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2011

Industrial and municipal effluents are important sources of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) discharged into the aquatic environment. This study investigated the endocrine potency of wastewater and the cleaning efficiency of two typical urban Danish sewage treatment plants (STPs), using chemical analysis and a battery of bioassays. Influent samples, collected at the first STP grate, and effluent samples, collected after the sewage treatment, were extracted using solid phase extraction. Extracts were analyzed for the content of a range of industrial chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties: phthalate metabolites, parabens, industrial phenols, ultraviolet screens, and natural and synthetic steroid estrogens. The endocrine disrupting bioactivity and toxicity of the extracts were analyzed in cell culture assay for the potency to affect the function of the estrogen, androgen, aryl hydrocarbon, and thyroid receptors as well as the steroid hormone synthesis. The early-life stage (ELS) development was tested in a marine copepod. The concentrations of all analyzed chemicals were reduced in effluents compared with influents, and for some to below the detection limit. Influent as well as effluent samples from both STPs were found to interact with all four receptors and to interfere with the steroid hormone synthesis showing the presence of measured EDCs. Both influent samples and one of the effluent samples inhibited the development of the copepod Acartia tonsa. In conclusion, the presence of EDCs was reduced in the STPs but not eliminated, as verified by the applied bioassays that all responded to the extracts of effluent samples. Our data suggest that the wastewater treatment processes are not efficient enough to prevent contamination of environmental surface waters. © 2010 SETAC.

Lukas J.,Institute of Cancer Biology
EMBO Reports | Year: 2010

The crucial role of ubiquitin signalling in genome-integrity maintenance was first recognized in 1987 by Stefan Jentsch and Alex Varshavsky, who showed that Rad6-the repair protein involved in DNA damage tolerance-is a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Although this discovery inspired extensive research and led to the discovery of genome surveillance pathways that are fuelled by proteolytic and regulatory ubiquitylation and SUMOylation, it took more than two decades for these fields to meet at a dedicated interdisciplinary conference. This was rectified at an EMBO workshop held between 1 and 5 September on Red Island, Rovinj, Croatia. © 2010 European Molecular Biology Organization.

Mathiasen D.P.,Institute of Cancer Biology | Egebjerg C.,Institute of Cancer Biology | Andersen S.H.,Institute of Cancer Biology | Rafn B.,Institute of Cancer Biology | And 14 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2012

Ras is one of the most frequently activated oncogenes in cancer. Two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important for ras transformation: extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2). Here we present a downstream signal amplification cascade that is critical for ras transformation in murine embryonic fibroblasts. This cascade is coordinated by ERK and JNK2 MAPKs, whose Ras-mediated activation leads to the enhanced levels of three oncogenic transcription factors, namely, c-Myc, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) and ATF3, all of which are essential for ras transformation. Previous studies show that ERK-mediated serine 62 phosphorylation protects c-Myc from proteasomal degradation. ERK is, however, not alone sufficient to stabilize c-Myc but requires the cooperation of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A), an oncogene that counteracts protein phosphatase 2A-mediated dephosphorylation of c-Myc. Here we show that JNK2 regulates Cip2a transcription via ATF2. ATF2 and c-Myc cooperate to activate the transcription of ATF3. Remarkably, not only ectopic JNK2, but also ectopic ATF2, CIP2A, c-Myc and ATF3 are sufficient to rescue the defective ras transformation of JNK2-deficient cells. Thus, these data identify the key signal converging point of JNK2 and ERK pathways and underline the central role of CIP2A in ras transformation. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Moreira J.M.A.,Institute of Cancer Biology | Ohlsson G.,Institute of Cancer Biology | Ohlsson G.,Novo Nordisk AS | Gromov P.,Institute of Cancer Biology | And 4 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2010

It is becoming increasingly clear that no single marker will have the sensitivity and specificity necessary to be used on its own for diagnosis/prognosis of tumors. Interpatient and intratumor heterogeneity provides overwhelming odds against the existence of such an ideal marker. With this in mind, our laboratory has been applying a long term systematic approach to identify multiple biomarkers that can be used for clinical purposes. As a result of these studies, we have identified and reported several candidate biomarker proteins that are deregulated in bladder cancer. Following the conceptual biomarker development phases proposed by the Early Detection Research Network, we have taken some of the most promising candidate proteins into post-discovery validation studies, and here we report on the characterization of one such biomarker, the bladder cancer-associated protein (BLCAP), formerly termed Bc10. To characterize BLCAP protein expression and cellular localization patterns in benign bladder urothelium and urothelial carcinomas (UCs), we used two independent sets of samples from different patient cohorts: a reference set consisting of 120 bladder specimens (formalin-fixed as well as frozen biopsies) and a validation set consisting of 2,108 retrospectively collected UCs with long term clinical follow-up. We could categorize the UCs examined into four groups based on levels of expression and subcellular localization of BLCAP protein and showed that loss of BLCAP expression is associated with tumor progression. The results indicated that increased expression of this protein confers an adverse patient outcome, suggesting that categorization of staining patterns for this protein may have prognostic value. Finally, we applied a combinatorial two-marker discriminator using BLCAP and adipocyte-type fatty acid-binding protein, another UC biomarker previously reported by us, and found that the combination of the two markers correlated more closely with grade and/or stage of disease than the individual markers. The implications of these results in biomarker discovery are discussed. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

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