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Lopez-Camarillo C.,Autonomous University of Mexico City | Marchat L.A.,Polytechnic School of Algiers | Arechaga-Ocampo E.,National Institute of Cancerology | Perez-Plasencia C.,National Institute of Cancerology | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2012

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs of ~22 nucleotides that function as negative regulators of gene expression by either inhibiting translation or inducing deadenylation-dependent degradation of target transcripts. Notably, deregulation of miRNAs expression is associated with the initiation and progression of human cancers where they act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors contributing to tumorigenesis. Abnormal miRNA expression may provide potential diagnostic and prognostic tumor biomarkers and new therapeutic targets in cancer. Recently, several miRNAs have been shown to initiate invasion and metastasis by targeting multiple proteins that are major players in these cellular events, thus they have been denominated as metastamiRs. Here, we present a review of the current knowledge of miRNAs in cancer with a special focus on metastamiRs. In addition we discuss their potential use as novel specific markers for cancer progression. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Fonseca-Sanchez M.A.,Autonomous University of Mexico City | Perez-Plasencia C.,National Institute of Cancerology | Perez-Plasencia C.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Fernandez-Retana J.,National Institute of Cancerology | And 8 more authors.
Oncology Reports | Year: 2013

microRNAs are small non-coding RNAs of ~22 nucleotides that function at post-transcriptional level as negative regulators of gene expression. Aberrant expression of microRNAs could promote uncontrolled proliferation, migration and invasion of human cancer cells. In this study, we analyzed the expression of microRNA-18b (miR-18b) in breast cancer cell lines and in a set of clinical specimens. Our results showed that miR-18b was upregulated in four out of five breast cancer cell lines and also in breast tumors. In order to identify potential gene targets, we carried out transcriptional profiling of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells that ectopically expressed miR-18b. Our results showed that 263 genes were significantly modulated in miR-18b-deficient cells (fold change >1.5; P≤0.05). We found that knock-down of miR-18b induced the upregulation of 55 olfactory receptor (OR) genes and nine genes (NLRP7, KLK3, OLFM3, POSTN, MAGED4B, KIR3DL3, CRX, SEMG1 and CEACAM5) with key roles in cell migration and metastasis. Consistently, we found that ectopic inhibition of miR-18b suppressed the migration of two breast cancer cell models in vitro. In conclusion, we have uncovered genes directly or indirectly modulated by miR-18b which may represent potential therapeutic targets in breast cancer. Our data also pointed out a role of miR-18b in migration of breast cancer cells.

Muniz Lino M.A.,Autonomous University of Mexico City | Palacios-Rodriguez Y.,Autonomous University of Mexico City | Rodriguez-Cuevas S.,Institute of Breast Diseases FUCAM | Bautista-Pina V.,Institute of Breast Diseases FUCAM | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2014

There are no targeted therapeutic modalities for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), thus it is associated with poor prognosis and worst clinical outcome. Here, our aim was to identify deregulated proteins in TNBC with potential therapeutic applications. Proteomics profiling of TNBC and normal breast tissues through two-dimensional electrophoresis and ESI-MS/MS mass spectrometry revealed the existence of 16 proteins (RhoGDI-2, HSP27, SOD1, DJ1, UBE2N, PSME1, FTL, SH3BGRL, and eIF5A-1) with increased abundance in carcinomas. We also evidenced for the first time the deregulation of COX5, MTPN and DB1 proteins in TNBC that may represent novel tumor markers. Particularly, we confirmed the overexpression of the Rho-GDP dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI-2) in distinct breast cancer subtypes, as well as in metastatic cell lines derived from lung, prostate, and breast cancer. Remarkably, targeted disruption of RhoGDI-2 by RNA interference induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and facilitated caspase-3 and -9 activation in two breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, suppression of RhoGDI-2 resulted in a robust sensitization of breast cancer cells to cisplatin therapy. In conclusion, we identified novel proteins deregulated in TNBC, and confirmed the overexpression of RhoGDI-2. We propose that RhoGDI-2 inhibition may be exploited as a potential therapeutic strategy along cisplatin-based chemotherapy in breast cancer. Biological significance: There are no useful biomarkers neither targeted therapeutic modalities for triple-negative breast cancer, which highly contributes to the poor prognosis of this breast cancer subtype. In this work, we used two-dimensional electrophoresis and ESI-MS/MS spectrometry to identify novel deregulated proteins in breast cancer tissues. Particularly, our results showed that RhoGDI-2, a protein that has been associated to metastasis and poor survival in human cancers, is overexpressed in different subtypes of breast tumors, as well as in metastatic cell lines derived from lung, prostate, and breast cancer. Our data also provided novel insights about the role of RhoGDI-2 in apoptosis through intrinsic pathway inhibition. Importantly, they suggested that targeted modulation of RhoGDI-2 levels might be a useful strategy for breast cancer therapy.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics, mass spectrometry and peptidomics, Cancun 2013. Guest Editors: César López-Camarillo, Victoria Pando-Robles and Bronwyn Jane Barkla. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Fonseca-Sanchez M.A.,Autonomous University of Mexico City | Cuevas S.R.,Institute of Breast Diseases FUCAM | Mendoza-Hernandez G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Bautista-Pina V.,Institute of Breast Diseases FUCAM | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2012

Breast cancer is the neoplasia with the highest incidence in women worldwide. Proteomics approaches have accelerated the discovery of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Here, we compared the proteomic profiles of breast tumors versus non-tumoral tissues in order to identify modulated proteins, which could represent potential markers associated to clinical features. By two-dimensional electrophoresis, we detected 28 differentially expressed proteins. Among these, 21 proteins were up-regulated and 7 were down-regulated in tumors (p<0.05). Proteins were identified using LC/ESI-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry. One protein was identified as glyoxalase 1 (GLO1), an enzyme involved in detoxification of methylglyoxal, a cytotoxic product of glycolysis. GLO1 overexpression was confirmed by western blot assays in paired normal and tumor breast tissues in clinical stages I-III, and by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays (TMA) comprising a cohort of 98 breast tumors and 20 healthy specimens. Results from TMA demonstrated that GLO1 is overexpressed in 79% of tumors. Interestingly, GLO1 up-regulation correlates with advanced tumor grade (p<0.05). These findings demonstrate the association of GLO1 overexpression with tumor grade and pointed out for additional studies to establish the importance of GLO1 in breast cancer.

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