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Seko Y.,Mie University | Heluta V.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Grigaliunaite B.,Institute of Botany of the Nature Research Center | Takamatsu S.,Mie University
Mycoscience | Year: 2011

ITS sequences determined for 53 Erysiphe specimens on Syringa and Ligustrum collected in Europe, East Asia, and North and South America were divided into two ITS groups, S and K types. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these two ITS types do not share a common ancestor and form separate clades. The K type on Ligustrum was identified as Erysiphe ligustri based on the three-dimensional branching pattern of appendages. Morphological observations showed that there are some morphological differences-pigmentation of appendages and number of ascospores per ascus-between the S and K types on Syringa. Based on these morphological observations, the S and K types on Syringa were identified as E. syringae and E. syringae-japonicae, respectively. The recent abundant production of chasmothecia by lilac powdery mildew in Europe was caused by E. syringae-japonicae introduced from East Asia. DNA sequence analyses of the rDNA ITS region and the 28S rDNA, tub2, CYP51, and Chs1 genes did not support an interspecific hybrid origin for E. syringae-japonicae. Haplotype analysis suggested that E. syringae originated in North America and independently migrated to East Asia and Europe/South America. © 2010 The Mycological Society of Japan and Springer. Source

Peciulyte D.,Institute of Botany of the Nature Research Center | Dirginciute-Volodkiene V.,Institute of Botany of the Nature Research Center
Ekologija | Year: 2012

The effect of copper and zinc on cultivable soil fungi populations was investigated in a laboratory experiment. Samples of four different soils (arable sandy soil and loam clay; forest sandy soil and forest peat) were collected from sites located in Vilnius district, Lithuania. Metals' effect was elaborated by addition of metal salts (CuSO4 and ZnSO4) at appropriate concentrations into the growth medium (Czapek's agar) and evaluating cultivable fungi abundance and species diversity changes. Zinc or copper salt was added to the medium after its sterilization; zinc concentration varied from 0.05 to 0.20 M (by 0.05 M concentration range) and copper concentration-from 0.5 to 3.0 mM (by 0.15 mM concentration range). At elevated metal salt concentrations, the abundance of cultivable fungi decreased with a marked elimination of some fungi species as compared with a control medium (without metal addition) fungi cultures. Irrespective of a fungi community structure in different type soils, Cu was a stronger inhibitor of soil fungi population abundance than Zn, however, both metals showed a comparable effect on the fungi species diversity. The most resistant fungi belonged to common insect pathogens (Beuveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Lecanicillium lecanii and Isaria spp.), which dominated comprising up to 90% of all recovered from the soils isolates, due to the metal salt concentration. © Lietuvos mokslu akademija, 2012. Source

Manusadzianas L.,Institute of Botany of the Nature Research Center | Caillet C.,University of Lorraine | Fachetti L.,University of Lorraine | Gylyte B.,Institute of Botany of the Nature Research Center | And 7 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2012

Toxicity effects induced by nanosuspensions of CuO (<50nm; Sigma-Aldrich) on macrophytic algae cells of Nitellopsis obtusa (96-h median lethal concentration [LC50]), microphytic algae Chlorella (30-min median inhibitory concentration [IC50]), shrimp Thamnocephalus platyurus (24-h LC50), and rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (24-h LC50) were investigated. No substantial differences between the effects of nonsonicated and sonicated nCuO suspensions were observed. The particle size distribution analysis accomplished by the laser diffraction technique at suspension concentration from 3 to 100mg/L revealed rapid (within 5min) reagglomeration of the particles after the sonication. The observed adverse effects on N. obtusa cells may be attributed to nanoparticles per se, but not to ionic Cu, because neither chemical analysis nor biological testing (algae survival in the supernatants of suspensions) confirmed the presence of cupric ions in toxic amounts. Contrary to ionic Cu form, nCuO delayed the initial phase of N. obtusa cell membrane depolarization. Lethality tests with rewash demonstrated that the least used 5-min exposure in 100mg/L nCuO sonicated suspension induced 70% mortality in charophyte cells after 8d, whereas the rewash after a short exposure to a noticeably toxic concentration of Cu 2+ prevented cell mortality. The obtained data suggested the possible influence of a thick charophyte cell wall on the dynamics of nanotoxicity effects. © 2011 SETAC. Source

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