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Omasheva M.E.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology | Chekalin S.V.,Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction | Galiakparov N.N.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology
Russian Journal of Genetics | Year: 2015

The territory of Kazakhstan is part of the distribution range of Malus sieversii, which is one of the ancestors of cultivated apple tree varieties. The collected samples of Sievers apple leaves from five populations growing in the Zailiysky Alatau region served as a source not only for the creation of a bank of genomic DNA but also for determination of the wild apple genetic polymorphism. The seven microsatellite markers used in this study revealed 86 alleles with different frequencies, as well as the characteristic pools of rare alleles for each of the populations. Molecular genetic analysis showed a high level of genetic diversity (Ho = 0.704, PIC = 0.752, I = 1.617). Moreover, interpopulation variability accounted only for 7.5% of total variability, confirming the genetic closeness of the populations examined. Based on phylogenetic analysis, it was demonstrated that the Bel’bulak and Almaty Reserve populations were closest to each other, while the most distant were the Ketmen and Great Almaty gorge populations, which suggests the dependence of genetic distance on the geographical. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Inc. Source


Liu Y.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Liu Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang Y.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Nowak R.S.,University of Nevada, Reno | Dimeyeva L.,Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction
Journal of Arid Land | Year: 2013

The invasion of nonnative plants is considered one of the main threats to the structure and function of North American ecosystems. Moreover, they can alter ecosystem processes and reduce biodiversity. In arid and semi-arid region of North America, the species of European annual grass Bromus tectorum L. is an outstanding example of these problems, which not only increase the fire density and change the fire regime, but replace native communities. Therefore, there are amount of researches on B. tectorum, including resource acquisition, water use efficiency and growth. Whereas the relevant research on the morphology of diaspore is scare. Diaspores have a fundamental role in seed germination and seedling establishment. Besides, as an important link between different generations, diaspores have a vital significance on individual reproduction and population extension. Hence, diaspores under selection for studying have an important implication. This study compares differences in seed morphology for Bromus tectorum collected from the United States, Kazakhstan, and Xinjiang of China. The following indices of B. tectorum diaspores were analyzed: size, thickness of covering layers, and micromorphological characteristics of the base, middle and transition area of diaspores as well as of the awn. Micromorphology of the lemma and the cross-section of the diaspore were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that thickness of the lemma and the palea of diaspores from B. tectorum-infested grasslands in the United States were reduced (P<0.05), likely because of environmental influences. This reduction facilitated the germination of diaspores and lowered the resistance of B. tectorum to adverse environmental conditions. The length of the awn also increased significantly (P<0.05), which helped in dispersal and anchoring of diaspores. Therefore, B. tectorum adapted ecologically to its new environment in the United States by strengthening its establishment ability. However, the defense capability of B. tectorum decreased. These results fit the evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis (EICA) of invasive species. Analysis of various cells on the lemma revealed that prickle densities and collapsed, long epidermal cells were easily influenced by environmental factors such as temperature and moisture because of the physiologic function of these structures on silicon accumulation. However, the form and the position of silica cells, which were not greatly influenced by environmental factors, might be genetically controlled. Studying these structures at the microscopic level helps define the relationship between the diaspore and its environment. This study has a reference value for future studies on B. tectorum. © 2013 Science Press, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Dimeyeva L.A.,Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction
Journal of Arid Land | Year: 2013

The northeastern coast of the Caspian Sea is one of the youngest territories for plant colonization in Kazakhstan, and the flora of the most recent portion of this coastal area, the New Caspian marine plain, was chosen to study phytogeographical characteristics of plant species, especially as related to alien origin and invasive potential. Because of the recent formation of this flora, I expected that a large proportion of the species may be alien and invasive. After compiling a comprehensive species list from previous research, I identified the taxonomic, life form, ecological, and geographical structures of the flora. The area belongs to the northern type of deserts with continental climate and low annual precipitation. Taxonomic and life form structures show that the flora is specific to Central Asian deserts. Ecological structure demonstrates a high percentage of halophytes, which resulted from their adaptation to soil salinity and shallow ground waters that occur throughout the study area. Geoelements of the flora indicate allochtonous properties of the flora (i.e. species derived from areas outside the study area) with a low proportion of native (Caspian) plants. Alien species are estimated to comprise 12%-19% of the flora. Although some species have invasive features, severe arid environmental conditions and high salinity of soils and ground waters decrease invasive capacity of exotic plants. However, a threat of expansion of potentially invasive plants exists in the New Caspian marine plain due to the fast growth of anthropogenic habitats associated with recent oil developments. © 2013 Science Press, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Maslova N.P.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Shilin P.V.,Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction
Paleontological Journal | Year: 2011

Based on morphological and epidermal characters of the leaf, a new species, Ettingshausenia sarbaensis sp. nov., from the Cenomanian-Turonian of western Kazakhstan is described. In fossil Platanus-like leaves, the unique epidermal structure, with the combination of encyclocytic, laterocytic, and paracytic stomata and the presence of trichomes on one or from two to seven epidermal cells, is shown for the first time. Based on variations in morphological and epidermal characters, two morphotypes corresponding to groups of sun and shade leaves are recognized. The expediency of consideration of dispersed Cretaceous Platanus-like leaves within the framework of morphological classification of leaves is discussed. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source


Makhatova B.,Kazakh National Medical University | Dathaev U.,Kazakh National Medical University | Gemejieva N.,Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction | Karzhaubekova Z.,Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction
Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2015

Amino acids are elementary structural units for the formation of proteins and some of them cannot be synthesized within the human body but should enter from outside. When the indispensable amino acids are lacking or some of them are completely absent in food the synthesis of full-blooded proteins becomes impossible with the following disturbances in the work of a number of systems and the appearance of various diseases. We have studied the amino acid composition of the aboveground and underground organs of two species of Verbascum widely growing on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan. 16 amino acids have been identified in the studied objects, 8 of which being indispensable, their quantitative composition has been established. © 2015, Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. All Rights Reserved. Source

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