Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction

Almaty, Kazakhstan

Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction

Almaty, Kazakhstan
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Dimeyeva L.A.,Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction | Sultanova B.M.,Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction | Permitina V.N.,Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction | Islamgulova A.F.,Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction | Kerdyashkin A.V.,Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction
Arid Ecosystems | Year: 2015

The spatial regularities of the plant cover in the eastern part of the Zaisan Depression were analyzed on three ecological profiles. In the piedmont plains of the Kurshum and Manrak Ridges, the distribution pattern of plant communities is determined by the altitude above sea level, mesoelements of the topography, the formation rate of the soil cover, and the salinity of soils and soil-forming rocks. Plant communities in the Black Irtysh River Sands are formed with respect to the relief, age, and wind redeposition of sands; soil salinization in the depressions between levees; and groundwater depth and mineralization. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Veselova P.V.,Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction
Arid Ecosystems | Year: 2016

A list of species from the family Brassicaceae Burnett was compiled based on the identification of herbarium samples collected in the Betpak-Dala desert in May 2014, a critical revision of the materials of Herbariums (AA and LE), and consideration of the literature data, The inclusion of some species (Matthiola robusta Bunge, Isatis violascens Bunge, I. maxima Pavl., etc.) in this list is discussed in more detail. The gen-eral list of Brassicaceae comprises 80 species. Eight species (10%) grow only in disturbed areas. These species, which are uncommon in the natural flora of the Betpak-Dala desert, were excluded from the analyzed list at the first stage of analysis. The final list for analysis included 72 species combined in 36 genera. The following genera proved to have the largest number of species in accordance with the study of the taxonomical compo-sition of Brassicaceae: Lepidium—13 (18%), Strigosella—6 (8%), and Alyssum—5 (7%). The classification of species into different vital forms revealed the indisputable dominance of annual plants (42 species), which are mostly ephemers (28 species). The analysis of the preference given by Brassicaceae to different edaphic variants showed that the majority of species prefer pelitophytic substrates. Only a few of them prefer hemi-petrophytic substrates. Of the 53 species growing on salinized substrates, 29 were found on alkaline soils and 24 were found on saline soils. It was shown that most species from the family Brassicaceae grow in either nat-ural undisturbed or weakly and moderately disturbed phytocenoses. Among the secondary (anthropophy-lous) habitats of species from the family Brassicaceae, agricultural lands (crops) are most preferred. In these habitats, 25 species of the general list of Brassicaceae in the Betpak-Dala desert were recorded. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Kurochkina L.Y.,Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction
Arid Ecosystems | Year: 2015

Indicators for the required ecological monitoring of the degradation of zonal vegetation formations have been identified for the northern Aral Sea region during the evaluation of desertification processes. The mapping is focused on the identification of the degree and trends of change and the role of dominant plants in ecosystems. A definition of the functional significance of vegetation is given. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Sermukhamedova O.V.,Kazakh National Medical University | Sakipova Z.B.,Kazakh National Medical University | Ternynko I.I.,Saint Petersburg Chemical Pharmaceutical Academy | Gemedzhieva N.G.,Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction
Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica - Drug Research | Year: 2017

The review deals with analysis and classification of literature data on pharmacognostic study (botanical characteristics, geographical distribution, chemical composition and use in medicine) of species of Motherwort genus (Leonurus L.). The review unveils opportunities for comprehensive study and development of approaches to the standardization of raw materials of Turkistan motherwort (L. turkestanicus V.I. Krecz. & Kuprian). That will allow to expand the range of sources of herbal remedies raw materials in the framework of realization of the state program for import substitution. © 2017, Polish Pharmaceutical Society. All rights reserved.

Rakhimova Y.V.,Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction | Yermekova B.D.,Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction | Assylbek A.M.,Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction
Current Research in Environmental and Applied Mycology | Year: 2017

Three poorly known species of the Kabatia were found in Kazakhstan. Symptoms of disease on living leaves of various species of honeysuckle are the similar for all species of Kabatia. Kabatia persica is typical for the southern regions of Kazakhstan, Kabatia periclymeni - for the south-east. The distribution area of Kabatia mirabilis is wider, the species is found in the eastern (Altai) and south-eastern (Trans-Ili Alatau) regions. © Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences.

Dragavtsev V.A.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations | Mikhailenko I.M.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations | Proskuryakov M.A.,Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2017

Improvement of hereditary drought resistance in crops is recently being among the main objectives for food security of humanity because of global warming and the growing costs for bakery and forage grain. Analysis of complex properties of drought resistance in cereals (phenotyping) shows the limitations of a canonical genocentric approach and the approaches based on molecular genetics to solve the problem of significant hereditary improvement of drought resistance. The priority epigenetic approach that we propose is based on the theory of eco-genetic organization of quantitative traits (TEGOQT). In TEGOQT seven genetic-physiological systems (GPS) involved in harvest increasing, but not particular traits of productivity, are to be operated with. These GPS are attractions; micro-distribution of attractive plastic substances between grains and chaff in ear; adaptability to drought, cold, frost, heat, salt, etc; horizontal immunity; «payment» by dry biomass for a limitative factor of soil nutrition - N, P, K, etc; tolerance to plant density in phytocenosis; hereditary variability in duration of the phases of ontogenesis). In this paper we discuss drought adaptability as a part of GPS complex. It is shown that phenotyping evaluation is necessary to analyze drought tolerance, the complex property to which no less than 22 component characters contribute. This allows to construct a set of eco-genetic portraits (EGP) of parent plants at different types of drought simulated in an artificial climate control chamber. The EGP are histograms which reflect the values of all components of drought resistance for each parent thus allowing to select pairs complementary in the elements of the EGP. Based on a predictive EGP, it is possible to define, through mathematical models that reflect the contribution of each component to the resulting drought tolerance, the optimum combination of components for ensuring maximum positive additive effect, and thus to manage selection of the parents for hybridization in view to create new drought resistant varieties.

Omasheva M.E.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology | Chekalin S.V.,Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction | Galiakparov N.N.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology
Russian Journal of Genetics | Year: 2015

The territory of Kazakhstan is part of the distribution range of Malus sieversii, which is one of the ancestors of cultivated apple tree varieties. The collected samples of Sievers apple leaves from five populations growing in the Zailiysky Alatau region served as a source not only for the creation of a bank of genomic DNA but also for determination of the wild apple genetic polymorphism. The seven microsatellite markers used in this study revealed 86 alleles with different frequencies, as well as the characteristic pools of rare alleles for each of the populations. Molecular genetic analysis showed a high level of genetic diversity (Ho = 0.704, PIC = 0.752, I = 1.617). Moreover, interpopulation variability accounted only for 7.5% of total variability, confirming the genetic closeness of the populations examined. Based on phylogenetic analysis, it was demonstrated that the Bel’bulak and Almaty Reserve populations were closest to each other, while the most distant were the Ketmen and Great Almaty gorge populations, which suggests the dependence of genetic distance on the geographical. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.

Liu Y.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Liu Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang Y.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Nowak R.S.,University of Nevada, Reno | Dimeyeva L.,Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction
Journal of Arid Land | Year: 2013

The invasion of nonnative plants is considered one of the main threats to the structure and function of North American ecosystems. Moreover, they can alter ecosystem processes and reduce biodiversity. In arid and semi-arid region of North America, the species of European annual grass Bromus tectorum L. is an outstanding example of these problems, which not only increase the fire density and change the fire regime, but replace native communities. Therefore, there are amount of researches on B. tectorum, including resource acquisition, water use efficiency and growth. Whereas the relevant research on the morphology of diaspore is scare. Diaspores have a fundamental role in seed germination and seedling establishment. Besides, as an important link between different generations, diaspores have a vital significance on individual reproduction and population extension. Hence, diaspores under selection for studying have an important implication. This study compares differences in seed morphology for Bromus tectorum collected from the United States, Kazakhstan, and Xinjiang of China. The following indices of B. tectorum diaspores were analyzed: size, thickness of covering layers, and micromorphological characteristics of the base, middle and transition area of diaspores as well as of the awn. Micromorphology of the lemma and the cross-section of the diaspore were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that thickness of the lemma and the palea of diaspores from B. tectorum-infested grasslands in the United States were reduced (P<0.05), likely because of environmental influences. This reduction facilitated the germination of diaspores and lowered the resistance of B. tectorum to adverse environmental conditions. The length of the awn also increased significantly (P<0.05), which helped in dispersal and anchoring of diaspores. Therefore, B. tectorum adapted ecologically to its new environment in the United States by strengthening its establishment ability. However, the defense capability of B. tectorum decreased. These results fit the evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis (EICA) of invasive species. Analysis of various cells on the lemma revealed that prickle densities and collapsed, long epidermal cells were easily influenced by environmental factors such as temperature and moisture because of the physiologic function of these structures on silicon accumulation. However, the form and the position of silica cells, which were not greatly influenced by environmental factors, might be genetically controlled. Studying these structures at the microscopic level helps define the relationship between the diaspore and its environment. This study has a reference value for future studies on B. tectorum. © 2013 Science Press, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Maslova N.P.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Shilin P.V.,Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction
Paleontological Journal | Year: 2011

Based on morphological and epidermal characters of the leaf, a new species, Ettingshausenia sarbaensis sp. nov., from the Cenomanian-Turonian of western Kazakhstan is described. In fossil Platanus-like leaves, the unique epidermal structure, with the combination of encyclocytic, laterocytic, and paracytic stomata and the presence of trichomes on one or from two to seven epidermal cells, is shown for the first time. Based on variations in morphological and epidermal characters, two morphotypes corresponding to groups of sun and shade leaves are recognized. The expediency of consideration of dispersed Cretaceous Platanus-like leaves within the framework of morphological classification of leaves is discussed. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Dimeyeva L.A.,Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction
Journal of Arid Land | Year: 2013

The northeastern coast of the Caspian Sea is one of the youngest territories for plant colonization in Kazakhstan, and the flora of the most recent portion of this coastal area, the New Caspian marine plain, was chosen to study phytogeographical characteristics of plant species, especially as related to alien origin and invasive potential. Because of the recent formation of this flora, I expected that a large proportion of the species may be alien and invasive. After compiling a comprehensive species list from previous research, I identified the taxonomic, life form, ecological, and geographical structures of the flora. The area belongs to the northern type of deserts with continental climate and low annual precipitation. Taxonomic and life form structures show that the flora is specific to Central Asian deserts. Ecological structure demonstrates a high percentage of halophytes, which resulted from their adaptation to soil salinity and shallow ground waters that occur throughout the study area. Geoelements of the flora indicate allochtonous properties of the flora (i.e. species derived from areas outside the study area) with a low proportion of native (Caspian) plants. Alien species are estimated to comprise 12%-19% of the flora. Although some species have invasive features, severe arid environmental conditions and high salinity of soils and ground waters decrease invasive capacity of exotic plants. However, a threat of expansion of potentially invasive plants exists in the New Caspian marine plain due to the fast growth of anthropogenic habitats associated with recent oil developments. © 2013 Science Press, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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