Arroyomolinos de León, Spain
Arroyomolinos de León, Spain

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PubMed | Autonomous University of Madrid, Institute of Biotechnology INBIOTEC and University of León
Type: | Journal: Microbial cell factories | Year: 2015

Streptomyces filipinensis is the industrial producer of filipin, a pentaene macrolide, archetype of non-glycosylated polyenes, and widely used for the detection and the quantitation of cholesterol in biological membranes and as a tool for the diagnosis of Niemann-Pick type C disease. Genetic manipulations of polyene biosynthetic pathways have proven useful for the discovery of products with improved properties. Here, we describe the late biosynthetic steps for filipin III biosynthesis and strategies for the generation of bioactive filipin III derivatives at high yield.A region of 13,778 base pairs of DNA from the S. filipinensis genome was isolated, sequenced, and characterized. Nine complete genes and two truncated ORFs were located. Disruption of genes proved that this genomic region is part of the biosynthetic cluster for the 28-membered ring of the polyene macrolide filipin. This set of genes includes two cytochrome P450 monooxygenase encoding genes, filC and filD, which are proposed to catalyse specific hydroxylations of the macrolide ring at C26 and C1 respectively. Gene deletion and complementation experiments provided evidence for their role during filipin III biosynthesis. Filipin III derivatives were accumulated by the recombinant mutants at high yield. These have been characterized by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance following high-performance liquid chromatography purification thus revealing the post-polyketide steps during polyene biosynthesis. Two alternative routes lead to the formation of filipin III from the initial product of polyketide synthase chain assembly and cyclization filipin I, one trough filipin II, and the other one trough 1-hydroxyfilipin I, all filipin III intermediates being biologically active. Moreover, minimal inhibitory concentration values against Candida utilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were obtained for all filipin derivatives, finding that 1-hydroxyfilipin and especially filipin II show remarkably enhanced antifungal bioactivity. Complete nuclear magnetic resonance assignments have been obtained for the first time for 1-hydroxyfilipin I.This report reveals the existence of two alternative routes for filipin III formation and opens new possibilities for the generation of biologically active filipin derivatives at high yield and with improved properties.


Vicente C.M.,University of León | Vicente C.M.,Institute of Biotechnology INBIOTEC | Payero T.D.,University of León | Payero T.D.,Institute of Biotechnology INBIOTEC | And 5 more authors.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

PAS-LuxR regulators are highly conserved proteins devoted to the control of antifungal production by binding to operators located in given promoters of polyene biosynthetic genes. The canonical operator of PimM, archetype of this class of regulators, has been used here to search for putative targets of orthologous protein PteF in the genome of Streptomyces avermitilis, finding 97 putative operators outside the pentaene filipin gene cluster (pte). The processes putatively affected included genetic information processing; energy, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism; DNA replication and repair; morphological differentiation; secondary metabolite biosynthesis; and transcriptional regulation, among others. Seventeen of these operators were selected, and their binding to PimM DNA-binding domain was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Strikingly, the protein bound all predicted operators suggesting a direct control over targeted processes. As a proof of concept, we studied the biosynthesis of the ATP-synthase inhibitor oligomycin whose gene cluster included two operators. Regulator mutants showed a severe loss of oligomycin production, whereas gene complementation of the mutant restored phenotype, and gene duplication in the wild-type strain boosted oligomycin production. Comparative gene expression analyses in parental and mutant strains by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction of selected olm genes corroborated production results. These results demonstrate that PteF is able to cross-regulate the biosynthesis of two related secondary metabolites, filipin and oligomycin, but might be extended to all the processes indicated above. This study highlights the complexity of the network of interactions in which PAS-LuxR regulators are involved and opens new possibilities for the manipulation of metabolite production in Streptomycetes. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Martinez-Burgo Y.,University of León | Alvarez-Alvarez R.,University of León | Perez-Redondo R.,Institute of Biotechnology INBIOTEC | Liras P.,University of León
Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2014

The Streptomyces clavuligerus cephamycin C gene cluster has been subcloned in a SuperCos-derived cosmid and introduced in Streptomyces flavogriseus ATCC 33331, Streptomyces coelicolor M1146 and Streptomyces albus J1074. The exconjugant strains were supplemented with an additional copy of the S. clavuligerus cephamycin regulatory activator gene, ccaRC, expressed from the constitutive Pfur promoter. Only S. flavogriseus-derived exconjugants produced a compound active against Escherichia coli ESS22-31 that was characterized by HPLC-MS as cephamycin C. The presence of an additional ccaR copy resulted in about 40-fold increase in cephamycin C production. Optimal heterologous cephamycin C production was in the order of 9% in relation to that of S. clavuligerus ATCC 27064. RT-qPCR studies indicated that ccaRC expression in S. flavogriseus::[SCos-CF] was 7% of that in S. clavuligerus and increased to 47% when supplemented with a copy of Pfur-ccaR. The effect on cephamycin biosynthesis gene expression was thus improved but not in an uniform manner for every gene. In heterologous strains, integration of the cephamycin cluster results in a ccaR-independent increased resistance to penicillin, cephalosporin and cefoxitin, what corresponds well to the strong expression of the pcbR and pbpA genes in S. flavogriseus-derived strains. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Santos-Aberturas J.,University of León | Santos-Aberturas J.,Institute of Biotechnology INBIOTEC | Payero T.D.,University of León | Payero T.D.,Institute of Biotechnology INBIOTEC | And 6 more authors.
Metabolic Engineering | Year: 2011

Control of polyene macrolide production in Streptomyces natalensis is mediated by the PAS-LuxR transcriptional activator PimM. Expression of target genes in this strain is positively regulated by binding of the regulator to 14-nucleotide sites showing dyad symmetry, and overlapping the -35 element of each promoter. These sequences have been found in the upstream regions of genes belonging to different polyene biosynthetic gene clusters. All the sequences in the amphotericin, nystatin, and filipin clusters were cloned and the binding of PimM to all of them has been shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. The precise binding regions were investigated by DNaseI protection studies. Results indicated that PAS-luxR regulators share the same regulatory pattern in different polyene-producing strains, these genes being responsible for polyketide chain construction, and when available, the genes for sugar dehydration and attachment, and the ABC transporters, the targets for regulation. Information content analysis of the 24 sequences protected in target promoters was used to refine the information-based model of the binding site. This site now spans 16 nucleotides and adjusts to the consensus CTVGGGAWWTCCCBAG. Gene complementation of S. natalensis Δ. pimM with a single copy of heterologous regulators of the PAS/LuxR class integrated into the chromosome, such as amphRIV, nysRIV, or pteF, restored antifungal production, thus proving the functional conservation of these regulators. Introduction of a single copy of pimM into the amphotericin producing strain Streptomyces nodosus, or into the filipin producing strain S. avermitilis, boosted the production of both polyenes, thus indicating that the expression of the PAS-LuxR regulator constitutes a bottleneck in the biosynthesis of the antifungal, and also that these regulators are fully exchangeable. This work is the first report of a general mechanism regulating polyene production. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Teijeira F.,Institute of Biotechnology INBIOTEC | Ullan R.V.,Institute of Biotechnology INBIOTEC | Fernandez-Aguado M.,University of León | Martin J.F.,Institute of Biotechnology INBIOTEC | Martin J.F.,University of León
Metabolic Engineering | Year: 2011

The Acremonium chrysogenum cephalosporin biosynthetic genes are divided in two different clusters. The central step of the biosynthetic pathway (epimerization of isopenicillin N to penicillin N) occurs in peroxisomes. We found in the "early" cephalosporin cluster a new ORF encoding a regulatory protein (CefR), containing a nuclear targeting signal and a "Fungal_trans" domain. Targeted inactivation of cefR delays expression of the cefEF gene, increases penicillin N secretion and decreases cephalosporin production. Overexpression of the cefR gene decreased (up to 60%) penicillin N secretion, saving precursors and resulting in increased cephalosporin C production. Northern blot analysis revealed that the CefR protein acts as a repressor of the exporter cefT and exerts a small stimulatory effect over the expression level of cefEF that explains the increased cephalosporin yields observed in transformants overexpressing cefR. In summary, we describe for the first time a modulator of beta-lactam intermediate transporters in A. chrysogenum. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Santos-Aberturas J.,University of León | Santos-Aberturas J.,Institute of Biotechnology INBIOTEC | Vicente C.M.,Institute of Biotechnology INBIOTEC | Payero T.D.,University of León | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Control of polyene macrolide production in Streptomyces natalensis is mediated by the transcriptional activator PimR. This regulator combines an N-terminal domain corresponding to the Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein (SARP) family of transcriptional activators with a C-terminal half homologous to guanylate cyclases and large ATP-binding regulators of the LuxR family. The PimR SARP domain (PimRSARP) was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fused protein. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that GST-PimRSARP binds a single target, the intergenic region between the regulatory genes pimR and pimMs in the pimaricin cluster. The PimRSARP-binding site was investigated by DNaseI protection studies, revealing that it contains three heptameric direct repeats adjusting to the consensus 5′-CGGCAAG-3′. Transcription start points of pimM and pimR promoters were identified by 5′-RACE, revealing that unlike other SARPs, PimRSARP does not interact with the -35 region of its target promoter. Quantitative transcriptional analysis of these regulatory genes on mutants on each of them has allowed the identification of the pimM promoter as the transcriptional target for PimR. Furthermore, the constitutive expression of pimM restored pimaricin production in a pimaricin-deficient strain carrying a deletion mutant of pimR. These results reveal that PimR exerts its positive effect on pimaricin production by controlling pimM expression level, a regulator whose gene product activates transcription from eight different promoters of pimaricin structural genes directly. © 2012 Santos-Aberturas et al.


Guerra S.M.,Institute of Biotechnology INBIOTEC | Guerra S.M.,University of León | Rodriguez-Garcia A.,Institute of Biotechnology INBIOTEC | Rodriguez-Garcia A.,University of León | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

LAL regulators (Large ATP-binding regulators of the LuxR family) constitute a poorly studied family of transcriptional regulators. Several regulators of this class have been identified in antibiotic and other secondary metabolite gene clusters from actinomycetes, thus they have been considered pathway-specific regulators. In this study we have obtained two disruption mutants of LAL genes from S. coelicolor (Δ0877 and Δ7173). Both mutants were deficient in the production of the polyketide antibiotic actinorhodin, and antibiotic production was restored upon gene complementation of the mutants. The use of whole-genome DNA microarrays and quantitative PCRs enabled the analysis of the transcriptome of both mutants in comparison with the wild type. Our results indicate that the LAL regulators under study act globally affecting various cellular processes, and amongst them the phosphate starvation response and the biosynthesis of the blue-pigmented antibiotic actinorhodin. Both regulators act as negative modulators of the expression of the two-component phoRP system and as positive regulators of actinorhodin biosynthesis. To our knowledge this is the first characterization of LAL regulators with wide implications in Streptomyces metabolism. © 2012 Guerra et al.


Alvarez-Alvarez R.,University of León | Alvarez-Alvarez R.,Institute of Biotechnology INBIOTEC | Martinez-Burgo Y.,University of León | Perez-Redondo R.,Institute of Biotechnology INBIOTEC | And 4 more authors.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Clusters for clavulanic acid (CA) biosynthesis are present in the actinomycetes Streptomyces flavogriseus ATCC 33331 and Saccharomonospora viridis DSM 43017. These clusters, which are silent, contain blocks of conserved genes in the same order as those of the Streptomyces clavuligerus CA cluster but assembled in a different organization. S. flavogriseus was grown in nine different media, but clavulanic acid production was undetectable using bioassays or by high-performance liquid chromatography analyses. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of S. flavogriseus CA biosynthesis genes showed that the regulatory genes ccaR and claR and some biosynthetic genes were expressed whereas expression of cyp, orf12, orf13, and oppA2 was undetectable. The ccaR gene of S. clavuligerus was unable to switch on CA production in S. flavogriseus::[Pfur-ccaR C], but insertion of a cosmid carrying the S. clavuligerus CA cluster (not including the ccaR gene) conferred clavulanic acid production on S. flavogriseus::[SCos-CA] particularly in TBO and YEME media; these results suggests that some of the S. flavogriseus CA genes are inactive. The known heptameric sequences recognized by CcaR in S. clavuligerus are poorly or not conserved in S. flavogriseus. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the CA gene clusters of S. clavuligerus and S. flavogriseus showed that the average expression value of the expressed genes in the former strain was in the order of 1.68-fold higher than in the later. The absence of CA production by S. flavogriseus can be traced to the lack of expression of the essential genes cyp, orf12, orf13, orf14, and oppA2. Heterologous expression of S. clavuligerus CA gene cluster in S. flavogriseus::[SCos-CA] was 11- to 14-fold lower than in the parental strain, suggesting that the genetic background of the host strain is important for optimal production of CA in Streptomyces. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


PubMed | Institute of Biotechnology INBIOTEC
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2012

LAL regulators (Large ATP-binding regulators of the LuxR family) constitute a poorly studied family of transcriptional regulators. Several regulators of this class have been identified in antibiotic and other secondary metabolite gene clusters from actinomycetes, thus they have been considered pathway-specific regulators. In this study we have obtained two disruption mutants of LAL genes from S. coelicolor (0877 and 7173). Both mutants were deficient in the production of the polyketide antibiotic actinorhodin, and antibiotic production was restored upon gene complementation of the mutants. The use of whole-genome DNA microarrays and quantitative PCRs enabled the analysis of the transcriptome of both mutants in comparison with the wild type. Our results indicate that the LAL regulators under study act globally affecting various cellular processes, and amongst them the phosphate starvation response and the biosynthesis of the blue-pigmented antibiotic actinorhodin. Both regulators act as negative modulators of the expression of the two-component phoRP system and as positive regulators of actinorhodin biosynthesis. To our knowledge this is the first characterization of LAL regulators with wide implications in Streptomyces metabolism.


PubMed | Institute of Biotechnology INBIOTEC and University of León
Type: | Journal: Journal of biotechnology | Year: 2014

The Streptomyces clavuligerus cephamycin C gene cluster has been subcloned in a SuperCos-derived cosmid and introduced in Streptomyces flavogriseus ATCC 33331, Streptomyces coelicolor M1146 and Streptomyces albus J1074. The exconjugant strains were supplemented with an additional copy of the S. clavuligerus cephamycin regulatory activator gene, ccaRC, expressed from the constitutive Pfur promoter. Only S. flavogriseus-derived exconjugants produced a compound active against Escherichia coli ESS22-31 that was characterized by HPLC-MS as cephamycin C. The presence of an additional ccaR copy resulted in about 40-fold increase in cephamycin C production. Optimal heterologous cephamycin C production was in the order of 9% in relation to that of S. clavuligerus ATCC 27064. RT-qPCR studies indicated that ccaRC expression in S. flavogriseus::[SCos-CF] was 7% of that in S. clavuligerus and increased to 47% when supplemented with a copy of Pfur-ccaR. The effect on cephamycin biosynthesis gene expression was thus improved but not in an uniform manner for every gene. In heterologous strains, integration of the cephamycin cluster results in a ccaR-independent increased resistance to penicillin, cephalosporin and cefoxitin, what corresponds well to the strong expression of the pcbR and pbpA genes in S. flavogriseus-derived strains.

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