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Sciandrello S.,University of Catania | Silletti G.,State Forestry Corps | Tomaselli V.,Institute of Biosciences and Bioresources
Biologia (Poland) | Year: 2015

Scorzoneroides muelleri (Sch. Bip.) Greuter & Talavera (Asteraceae), a very rare species, is a hygrophyte occurring in the southern part of the Mediterranean basin. In Italy, the presence of this species is confirmed for Sicily, while in Sardinia and Liguria it has not been recorded any longer. Three new localities, recently found in Apulia (southern Italy), are here reported. The floristic composition of Scorzoneroides muelleri communities in Italy is here analyzed, in order to characterize the diversity of populations in relation to different ecological conditions and assess their conservation status at regional level. A total of 70 plots were surveyed. For each plot, the floristic composition and cover of the species were determined using standard method of relevés. Cluster analysis and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) allowed the identification of three vegetation types which correlated with ecological gradients ranging from the coast to inland areas. The first is characterized by the presence of Lythrum hyssopifolia (coastal zone, Sicily), the second by the presence of Trisetaria aurea (inland zone, Sicily) and the third by Sphenopus divaricatus (coastal zone, Apulia). The limited distribution of this taxon is a probably a consequence of the degradation, fragmentation and reduction of its natural habitat. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences.


Bonavita A.,Institute of Biosciences and BioResources | Carratore V.,Institute of Biosciences and BioResources | Ciardiello M.A.,Institute of Biosciences and BioResources | Giovane A.,The Second University of Naples | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

Pectin methylesterase is a pectin modifying enzyme that plays a key role in plant physiology. It is also an important quality-related enzyme in plant-based food products. The pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) from kiwifruit inhibits this enzyme activity and is widely used as an efficient tool for research purposes and also recommended in the context of fruit and vegetable processing. Using several methodologies of protein biochemistry, including circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy, chemical modifications, direct protein-sequencing, enzyme activity, and bioinformatics analysis of the crystal structure, this study demonstrates that conformational changes occur in kiwi PMEI by the pH rising over 6.0 bringing about structure loosening, exposure, and cleavage of a natively buried disulfide bond, unfolding and aggregation, ultimately determining the loss of ability of kiwi PMEI to bind and inhibit PME. pH-induced structural changes are prevented when PMEI is already engaged in complex or is in a solution of high ionic strength. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


Bianco C.,Institute of Biosciences and BioResources | Senatore B.,Institute of Biosciences and BioResources | Senatore B.,University of Salerno | Arbucci S.,CNR Institute of Genetics and Biophysics Adriano Buzzati Traverso | And 2 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2014

To evaluate the dose-response effects of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on Medicago plant growth and dry weight production, we increased the synthesis of IAA in both free-living and symbiosis-stage rhizobial bacteroids during Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. For this purpose, site-directed mutagenesis was applied to modify an 85-bp promoter sequence, driving the expression of iaaM and tms2 genes for IAA biosynthesis. A positive correlation was found between the higher expression of IAA biosynthetic genes in free-living bacteria and the increased production of IAA under both free-living and symbiotic conditions. Plants nodulated by RD65 and RD66 strains, synthetizing the highest IAA concentration, showed a significant (up to 73%) increase in the shoot fresh weight and upregulation of nitrogenase gene, nifH, compared to plants nodulated by the wild-type strain. When these plants were analyzed by confocal microscopy, using an anti-IAA antibody, the strongest signal was observed in bacteroids of Medicago sativa RD66 (Ms-RD66) plants, even when they were located in the senescent nodule zone. We show here a simple system to modulate endogenous IAA biosynthesis in bacteria nodulating legumes suitable to investigate which is the maximum level of IAA biosynthesis, resulting in the maximal increase of plant growth. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology.


Sattin G.,University of Padua | Bakiu R.,Agricultural University of Tirana | Tolomeo A.M.,University of Padua | Carraro A.,University of Padua | And 4 more authors.
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2015

Glutathione peroxidases are a family of antioxidant enzymes catalyzing the reduction of H2O2 or organic hydroperoxides. In the present study, we report the molecular characterization and gene expression analysis of a new GPx-1 from the Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii. To expand our knowledge on the GPx-1 s evolution within the group of Antarctic fish, in this work, we also presented the cDNA sequencing of this enzyme in other three species, belonging to two families—Nototheniidae (Trematomus eulepidotus, T. lepidorhinus) and Bathydraconidae (Cygnodraco mawsoni). The deduced amino acid sequences were compared with GPx-1 s of other vertebrates by multiple alignment, in order to evaluate the conservation of amino acids involved in the enzyme activity. The results of phylogenetic analyses indicated that fish GPx-1 s possibly originated from independent duplication events, and Antarctic GPx-1 s evolved according to the molecular and morphological phylogeny of Antarctic fish. Basal GPx-1 mRNA expression analyses in various tissues of T. bernacchii specimens indicated that liver and heart displayed the highest mRNA accumulation; probably a protection of these organs against lipid peroxidation is needed. © 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland


Mita L.,Italian National Institute of Biosystems and Biostructures | Mita L.,Institute of Genetic and Biophysics ABT | Grumiro L.,Italian National Institute of Biosystems and Biostructures | Rossi S.,Institute of Genetic and Biophysics ABT | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2015

Serratia rubidiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli K12 have been studied for their ability of Bisphenol A removal from aqueous systems and biofilm formation on activated granule carbon. Mathematical equations for biodegradation process have been elaborated and discussed. P. aeruginosa was found the best strain to be employed in the process of Bisphenol A removal. The yield in BPA removal of a P. aeruginosa biofilm grown on GAC and operating in a fluidized bed reactor has been evaluated. The results confirm the usefulness in using biological activated carbon (BAC process) to remove phenol compounds from aqueous systems. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Tomaselli V.,Institute of Biosciences and Bioresources | Sciandrello S.,University of Catania
Plant Biosystems | Year: 2016

An overview of the coastal vegetation of Site of Community Importance “Zone Umide della Capitanata” (Puglia Region) is here presented. Original relevés were performed in different locations of the site. On the basis of the in-field observations (142 original relevés) and of literature data, 44 plant communities have been defined, belonging to the following classes: Lemnetea minoris, Ruppietea maritimae, Potametea pectinati, Phragmito-Magnocaricetea, Cakiletea maritimae, Ammophiletea, Helichryso-Crucianelletea maritimae, Juncetea maritimi, Sarcocornietea fruticosae, Saginetea maritimae, Thero-Suaedetea, Tuberarietea guattatae, Nerio-Tamaricetea. For each vegetation unit, the distribution area at local and regional level and the relation to habitat types of the 92/43 EEC Directive are provided. © 2016 Società Botanica Italiana


Alba V.,University of Basilicata | Bisignano V.,Institute of Biosciences and BioResources | Polignano G.,Institute of Biosciences and BioResources | Alba E.,University of Basilicata
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2015

In the last few years, there has been an increasing interest towards the "nutraceutical" content of typical Mediterranean foods, particularly of extra virgin olive oil, which is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants and polyphenols. In the present work 5 olive cultivars traditionally cultivated in Basilicata region (Southern Italy) have been studied so as to identify the autochthonous cultivars producing oils with the best chemical composition. The analysis was performed on morphoagronomic, biochemical and sensory properties of oils, followed by genetic screening of 6 SSR locus markers on DNA extracted from leaves. Results showed significant differences within 5 olive cultivars in terms of leaf surface, drupe mean weight and oil yield. Biochemical analyses have shown differences in fatty acid composition of oleic, palmitic, stearic, palmitoleic and linoleic acids. Significant differences have also been found in the content of total phenols, sterols, total fatty acids and in the unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratios. Sensory profiles have provided valuable information about the organoleptic characteristics of each monovarietal oil. SSR locus markers were able to discriminate among the tested cultivars. The results of this investigation have demonstrated that the cvs Majatica di Ferrandina and Racioppa have the highest potential for producing high quality extra virgin olive oil. © 2015 Friends Science Publishers.


Menzel P.,Copenhagen University | Gudbergsdottir S.R.,Copenhagen University | Rike A.G.,Norwegian Geotechnical Institute | Lin L.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | And 12 more authors.
Microbial Ecology | Year: 2015

Hot springs are natural habitats for thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria. In this paper, we present the metagenomic analysis of eight globally distributed terrestrial hot springs from China, Iceland, Italy, Russia, and the USA with a temperature range between 61 and 92 ∘C and pH between 1.8 and 7. A comparison of the biodiversity and community composition generally showed a decrease in biodiversity with increasing temperature and decreasing pH. Another important factor shaping microbial diversity of the studied sites was the abundance of organic substrates. Several species of the Crenarchaeal order Thermoprotei were detected, whereas no single bacterial species was found in all samples, suggesting a better adaptation of certain archaeal species to different thermophilic environments. Two hot springs show high abundance of Acidithiobacillus, supporting the idea of a true thermophilic Acidithiobacillus species that can thrive in hyperthermophilic environments. Depending on the sample, up to 58 % of sequencing reads could not be assigned to a known phylum, reinforcing the fact that a large number of microorganisms in nature, including those thriving in hot environments remain to be isolated and characterized. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


PubMed | Institute of Biosciences and BioResources, Italian National Institute of Biosystems and Biostructures, The Second University of Naples, Instituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno and Institute of Genetic and Biophysics ABT
Type: | Journal: Journal of hazardous materials | Year: 2015

Serratia rubidiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli K12 have been studied for their ability of Bisphenol A removal from aqueous systems and biofilm formation on activated granule carbon. Mathematical equations for biodegradation process have been elaborated and discussed. P. aeruginosa was found the best strain to be employed in the process of Bisphenol A removal. The yield in BPA removal of a P. aeruginosa biofilm grown on GAC and operating in a fluidized bed reactor has been evaluated. The results confirm the usefulness in using biological activated carbon (BAC process) to remove phenol compounds from aqueous systems.

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