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Sammichele di Bari, Italy

Sciandrello S.,University of Catania | Silletti G.,State Forestry Corps | Tomaselli V.,Institute of Biosciences and Bioresources
Biologia (Poland) | Year: 2015

Scorzoneroides muelleri (Sch. Bip.) Greuter & Talavera (Asteraceae), a very rare species, is a hygrophyte occurring in the southern part of the Mediterranean basin. In Italy, the presence of this species is confirmed for Sicily, while in Sardinia and Liguria it has not been recorded any longer. Three new localities, recently found in Apulia (southern Italy), are here reported. The floristic composition of Scorzoneroides muelleri communities in Italy is here analyzed, in order to characterize the diversity of populations in relation to different ecological conditions and assess their conservation status at regional level. A total of 70 plots were surveyed. For each plot, the floristic composition and cover of the species were determined using standard method of relevés. Cluster analysis and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) allowed the identification of three vegetation types which correlated with ecological gradients ranging from the coast to inland areas. The first is characterized by the presence of Lythrum hyssopifolia (coastal zone, Sicily), the second by the presence of Trisetaria aurea (inland zone, Sicily) and the third by Sphenopus divaricatus (coastal zone, Apulia). The limited distribution of this taxon is a probably a consequence of the degradation, fragmentation and reduction of its natural habitat. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences. Source

Sattin G.,University of Padua | Bakiu R.,Agricultural University of Tirana | Tolomeo A.M.,University of Padua | Carraro A.,University of Padua | And 4 more authors.
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2015

Glutathione peroxidases are a family of antioxidant enzymes catalyzing the reduction of H2O2 or organic hydroperoxides. In the present study, we report the molecular characterization and gene expression analysis of a new GPx-1 from the Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii. To expand our knowledge on the GPx-1 s evolution within the group of Antarctic fish, in this work, we also presented the cDNA sequencing of this enzyme in other three species, belonging to two families—Nototheniidae (Trematomus eulepidotus, T. lepidorhinus) and Bathydraconidae (Cygnodraco mawsoni). The deduced amino acid sequences were compared with GPx-1 s of other vertebrates by multiple alignment, in order to evaluate the conservation of amino acids involved in the enzyme activity. The results of phylogenetic analyses indicated that fish GPx-1 s possibly originated from independent duplication events, and Antarctic GPx-1 s evolved according to the molecular and morphological phylogeny of Antarctic fish. Basal GPx-1 mRNA expression analyses in various tissues of T. bernacchii specimens indicated that liver and heart displayed the highest mRNA accumulation; probably a protection of these organs against lipid peroxidation is needed. © 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland Source

Menzel P.,Copenhagen University | Gudbergsdottir S.R.,Copenhagen University | Rike A.G.,Norwegian Geotechnical Institute | Lin L.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | And 12 more authors.
Microbial Ecology | Year: 2015

Hot springs are natural habitats for thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria. In this paper, we present the metagenomic analysis of eight globally distributed terrestrial hot springs from China, Iceland, Italy, Russia, and the USA with a temperature range between 61 and 92 ∘C and pH between 1.8 and 7. A comparison of the biodiversity and community composition generally showed a decrease in biodiversity with increasing temperature and decreasing pH. Another important factor shaping microbial diversity of the studied sites was the abundance of organic substrates. Several species of the Crenarchaeal order Thermoprotei were detected, whereas no single bacterial species was found in all samples, suggesting a better adaptation of certain archaeal species to different thermophilic environments. Two hot springs show high abundance of Acidithiobacillus, supporting the idea of a true thermophilic Acidithiobacillus species that can thrive in hyperthermophilic environments. Depending on the sample, up to 58 % of sequencing reads could not be assigned to a known phylum, reinforcing the fact that a large number of microorganisms in nature, including those thriving in hot environments remain to be isolated and characterized. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Bianco C.,Institute of Biosciences and Bioresources | Senatore B.,Institute of Biosciences and Bioresources | Senatore B.,University of Salerno | Arbucci S.,CNR Institute of Genetics and Biophysics Adriano Buzzati Traverso | And 2 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2014

To evaluate the dose-response effects of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on Medicago plant growth and dry weight production, we increased the synthesis of IAA in both free-living and symbiosis-stage rhizobial bacteroids during Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. For this purpose, site-directed mutagenesis was applied to modify an 85-bp promoter sequence, driving the expression of iaaM and tms2 genes for IAA biosynthesis. A positive correlation was found between the higher expression of IAA biosynthetic genes in free-living bacteria and the increased production of IAA under both free-living and symbiotic conditions. Plants nodulated by RD65 and RD66 strains, synthetizing the highest IAA concentration, showed a significant (up to 73%) increase in the shoot fresh weight and upregulation of nitrogenase gene, nifH, compared to plants nodulated by the wild-type strain. When these plants were analyzed by confocal microscopy, using an anti-IAA antibody, the strongest signal was observed in bacteroids of Medicago sativa RD66 (Ms-RD66) plants, even when they were located in the senescent nodule zone. We show here a simple system to modulate endogenous IAA biosynthesis in bacteria nodulating legumes suitable to investigate which is the maximum level of IAA biosynthesis, resulting in the maximal increase of plant growth. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Mita L.,Italian National Institute of Biosystems and Biostructures | Mita L.,Institute of Genetic and Biophysics aBT | Grumiro L.,Italian National Institute of Biosystems and Biostructures | Rossi S.,Institute of Genetic and Biophysics aBT | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2015

Serratia rubidiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli K12 have been studied for their ability of Bisphenol A removal from aqueous systems and biofilm formation on activated granule carbon. Mathematical equations for biodegradation process have been elaborated and discussed. P. aeruginosa was found the best strain to be employed in the process of Bisphenol A removal. The yield in BPA removal of a P. aeruginosa biofilm grown on GAC and operating in a fluidized bed reactor has been evaluated. The results confirm the usefulness in using biological activated carbon (BAC process) to remove phenol compounds from aqueous systems. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

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