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Hernandez A.F.,University of Granada | Gonzalez-Alzaga B.,Institute Of Biosanitary Research Ibsgranada | Lopez-Flores I.,Institute Of Biosanitary Research Ibsgranada | Lopez-Flores I.,University of Granada | And 2 more authors.
Environment International | Year: 2016

Background: Epidemiological data are not currently used in the risk assessment of chemical substances in a systematic and consistent manner. However, systematic reviews (SRs) could be useful for risk assessment as they appraise and synthesize the best epidemiological knowledge available. Objectives: To conduct a comprehensive literature search of SRs pertaining to pesticide exposure and various neurological outcomes, namely neurodevelopmental abnormalities, Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and to assess the potential contribution of SRs to the risk assessment process. Search methods and selection criteria: Search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science databases and articles were selected if the following inclusion criteria were met: being a SR, published until April 2015 and without language restrictions. Data collection and analysis: For each neurological outcome, two review authors independently screened the search results for included studies. Data were extracted and summarized in two tables according to 16 criteria. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. Main results: The total number of studies identified in the first search was 65, 304 and 108 for neurodevelopment, PD and AD, respectively. From them, 8, 10 and 2 met the defined inclusion criteria for those outcomes, respectively. Overall, results suggest that prenatal exposure to organophosphates is associated with neurodevelopmental disturbances in preschool and school children. In contrast, postnatal exposures failed to show a clear effect across cohort studies. Regarding PD, 6 SRs reported statistically significant combined effect size estimates, with OR/RR ranging between 1.28 and 1.94. As for AD, 2 out of the 8 original articles included in the SRs found significant associations, with OR of 2.39 and 4.35, although the quality of the data was rather low. Conclusions: The critical appraisal of the SRs identified allowed for discussing the implications of SRs for risk assessment, along with the identification of gaps and limitations of current epidemiological studies that hinder their use for risk assessment. Recommendations are proposed to improve studies for this purpose. In particular, harmonized quantitative data (expressed in standardized units) would allow a better interpretation of results and would facilitate direct comparison of data across studies. Outcomes should be also harmonized for an accurate and reproducible measurement of adverse effects. Appropriate SRs and quantitative synthesis of the evidence should be performed regularly for a continuous update of the risk factors on health outcomes and to determine, if possible, dose-response curves for risk assessment. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Alvarez P.,Institute Of Biosanitary Research Ibsgranada | Alvarez P.,Institute of Biopathology and Regenerative | Arguello A.,Andalusian Public Foundation Progress and Health | Arguello A.,University of Jaen | And 9 more authors.
Recent Patents on Regenerative Medicine | Year: 2015

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to cause cancer recurrence because they resist conventional therapies and restart the growth of tumor cells. CSCs has a specific biological behavior, mainly due to a deregulation of the self-renewal capacity. These cells differ in division and the cell cycle, replication capacity in DNA repair, and deregulation of signaling pathways. Collectively, these results give CSC a malignant phenotype. This review focuses on CSCs oncology patents in the years 2011-2015. Because many inventions have recently been registered in relation to stem cells, our attention focuses on cancer-utility CSCs patents. The patents selected have been analyzed based on their therapeutic usefulness in the area of cancer, and we have detected a clear increase in interest, so that the data of patent applications filed in 2014 is highly significant. Compared with the total for 2013, patents have multiplied by 8.01. On the other hand, 59.57% of all selected patents were useful in oncology in general, opening new therapeutic perspectives for identifying CSCs. We also analyzed the interests of different countries in advancing knowledge in the area of the CSCs as a therapeutic tool for tumors. Some 38% of these patents are registered in the EU, while other countries showed fewer patents in this field of pathologies. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers

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